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Basic Care Instructions #14 : Sweaters

 

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BASIC CARE INSTRUCTIONS  #14: Sweaters

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This is the 14th in a series of articles on common care instructions for domestic items and materials most often seen in antiques and vintage textiles, including but not limited to housewares and clothing. I hope this care information is helpful to you.

You may well know a lot more about the care of domestic items than I can tell you here, but it's nice to have all this information in one place. At the risk of trying your patience, I go into considerable detail in suggesting how to care for your things. I've also added some detailed general suggestions here, and if you follow them, they can add a lot to the life expectancy of your favorite garments.

See our issue BASIC CARE INSTRUCTIONS #1 for information on how to read care labels you may find on vintage fabrics (and you should follow them if you do find them!). All previous articles in the series can be found in our library and in the magazine archives.  

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SWEATERS

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Sweater care is essentially painless.

The most important thing is to know what you should do before you start to do anything.

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By this I mean, check the label to learn whether the sweater can be hand washed or if dry cleaning is advised.

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More often than not, the label does recommend dry cleaning because of the sweater's design, its' bulky construction, its' trim, or the fiber used to make it.  If this is the case, by all means, entrust the job to a reputable professional dry cleaner. Don't attempt to save money by using a coin-operated machine or home dry clean product. Your sweater is worth more to you than that.

Beyond that general advice, here are some suggestions for good sweater upkeep.  

Following that, I'm passing on the best method I know for hand washing a sweater.  

And finally, I've added terse instructions to fit most types and styles of sweaters. Ok? Fine. Let's begin. 
 

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SWEATER MAINTENANCE BETWEEN WASHINGS

1. Give your sweater a good shake after each wearing to remove fluff.

 

2. You should really air out a sweater between wearings. 

 

Never hang a sweater to air it out.  

Lay the sweater out flat on a natural fiber towel which allows air circulation, and is away from direct sunlight.

3. You know those "fuzz balls" that gather on a sweater? They're called "pills". To remove them, don't pull them, since you could pull out a yarn from the sweater with them. Razor them off lightly, and I DO MEAN LIGHTLY. This means you cut them off CAREFULLY.  Cut these pills off carefully, one at a time, using a razor, or a pair of small sharp pointed scissors. 


If you're nervous about this or your mind's prone to wandering, then use a sweater shaver with a razor in it as that is a lot like bicycling with a tricycle. A "sweater shaver" is an inexpensive device containing a razor blade and in theory, it lines up the excess with the razor blades so you don't have to think about doing it, and thus allows you to remove the pills without damaging the yarn. Now if you really want to trust one of these rather than yourself, go right ahead, but don't try it first on your best sweater.


4. If you have a "wrinkly" sweater, get out the steam iron and "blot" out the wrinkles.  

 

Don't press down or touch the fabric of the sweater, and preferably turn the sweater inside out before performing this treatment. It is still best to send the sweater to the dry cleaner's however.

5. Store your sweater only after it is dried thoroughly, and it is clean. It could rot, otherwise, In the summer, make sure you've found a cool dry place for doing this. 

6. When you store a sweater, store it flat. Never hang it. And don't store it in plastic, which builds moisture and keeps the sweater from breathing; it could rot.


        
*** This illustration shows you how to fold your sweater! ***


7. Be aware that moths like wool, and they will find the slightest stain irresistible. It's a good idea to store wools in a natural wrapper with cedar chips or moth balls. 

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IF YOUR LABELS SAYS "HAND WASH" 


If your label says "Hand Wash", here are my best suggestions on what to do. 

1. First, turn your sweater INSIDE OUT.

 

2. If possible, use a two-sink set up to wash.

You will need a stack of towels; two for each sweater. 
Fill the sink with water and add mild soap recommended for cottons and wools.  
If you don't have mild soap on hand, use a bar of soap, pretend you're washing your hands with it, and lather up; then put that lather into the sink water; this dilutes the soap just the right amount.

When working with wools, the wash and rinse temperature should be the same temperature or the wool can shrink or expand, and you don't want that. 

3. Never use chlorine bleach on wool because it breaks down fibers. You can use hydrogen peroxide to work out touch stains; be sure to dilute it with water first!

4. Place your sweater in the soapy water.  Work the soap through your sweater gently without twisting or pulling it.  This is the stage in the process where you must be extra careful to avoid stretching the sweater unduly.  Then, turn on the tap and run the water to rinse the sweater, until you've rinsed out all the bubbles.

5. Then, wash again, and rinse.

6. Gently squeeze out excess water, making sure you support the sweater from underneath to avoid stretching.

7. Pat out moisture by rolling your sweater in a terry towel and blotting. In the case of colorful sweaters, try to remove all moisture with this method to avoid color bleeding.

8. Place the sweater face up on a dry towel and block to shape.  The trick here is that the drying process will help form the sweater into the shape you want.  If you want to reshape the sweater, for example to make it larger, now is the time to do it. This is your chance.

9. Finally, let your sweater dry overnight.  In the morning, turn over the sweater and block the other side until dry.

Note: There are such things as "sweater dryers' that you can purchase; they resemble accordion wood antennas. They are good for allowing air circulation and if you own one, they make steps #8 and #9 simpler.


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This is NOT the way to dry your sweater:

 

And neither is this:

 

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Having said all this, here are specific care instructions for sweaters. 

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CARE INSTRUCTIONS FOR SPECIFIC TYPES OF KNITS

 

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COTTON SHAKER STITCH KNITS:
Machine wash warm on a delicate cycle.
Use only non-chlorine bleach and only when needed.
Tumble dry on low and remove promptly.

 

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TIGHT COTTON KNITS:
Machine wash warm on a delicate cycle.
Use only non-chlorine bleach and only when needed.
Tumble dry on low and remove promptly.


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HAND KNITS:
Hand wash in cold water.
Do not wring or twist.
Do not bleach.
Block to dry flat.

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RAGG COTTON:
Hand wash in cold water.
Do not wring or twist.
Do not bleach.
Block to dry flat.

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CARE INSTRUCTIONS FOR SWEATERS BY THEIR COMPONENT FIBERS

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COTTON

Almost pure cellulose, cotton is a soft, fleecy fiber that grows around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae. They're shrubs. Cotton grows as a protective seed enclosure that tends to increase the dispersal of the plant's seeds.  

The fiber is most often spun into yarn or thread and used to make a soft, breathable textile. The use of cotton for fabric dates from prehistoric times and cotton fiber is the most widely used natural fiber cloth in clothing today. 

Naturally colored cotton is cotton that has been bred to have four standard colors: green, brown, red (a reddish brown) and mocha (similar to tan). This cotton's natural color does not fade but it's still a speciality production; it has a more fragile fiber quality, a softer feel, pleasant smell, and much lower yield. 

Tests show naturally colored cotton has excellent sun protection properties.  There is experimental evidence to demonstrate that naturally pigmented cottons, especially green cotton, have excellent sun protection properties, when compared with unbleached white cotton that needs to be treated with dyes or finishes to obtain similar properties. 

For more information, please see
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cotton
and
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naturally_colored_cotton

100% COTTON:
Hand wash in cold water.
Do not wring or twist.
Do not bleach.
Block to dry flat.
- OR -
Machine wash in warm water on delicate cycle.
Use only non-chlorine bleach and only when needed.
Tumble dry on low and remove promptly. 


 

COTTON / WOOL BLENDS:
Hand wash in cold water.
Do not wring or twist.
Do not bleach.
Block to dry flat.

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SILK

Silk thread is woven, knitted, crocheted; silk has a legendary variety of textures and fabrics. The process of silk production is called sericulture; for thousands of years, it was a carefully guarded secret in China. While silk is one of the strongest natural fibers, it loses up to 20% of its' strength when wet. If stretched, it stays stretched; in other words, it's not elastic. Unlike many synthetics, silk is not slippery; it has a soft, smooth texture with a high sheen.

Silk is resistant to most mineral acids, except for sulfuric acid, which dissolves it, and chlorine bleach, which destroys silk fabric. Silk is yellowed by perspiration, and silk fabrics can be weakened if exposed to too much sun.

Silk fabric as clothing can protect the skin from many biting insects that pierce clothing, such as mosquitoes, ticks, and horseflies. 

Silk is produced by several insects however the best-known silk today is from the cocoons of the larvae of the mulberry silkworm Bombyx mori, the domesticated silkworm, reared in captivity.  Silk is a natural protein fiber mainly produced by certain insect larvae to form cocoons, when the insects undergo complete metamorphosis, however some insects produce silk throughout their lifetimes. 

For more information, please see
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_silk
and
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Silk
 

SILK CARE:
Professionally dry clean with Perchloroethylene.
Short cycle.
Minimum extraction.
Tumble warm. 

 

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WOOL (ANIMAL FUR)

ALPACA 
 

The alpaca (Vicugna pacos) has been a domesticated species for thousands of years. An alpaca is a domesticated species of South American camelid, resembling a small llama in appearance and bred specifically for their fibre. There are two breeds: the Suri and the Huacaya. Remarkably, their fiber comes in more than 52 natural colors as classified in Peru, 12 as classified in Australia and 16 as classified in the United States. 

There are no known wild alpacas, and its closest living relative, the vicuña (also native to South America), are believed to be the wild ancestor of the alpaca. Vicuña fiber is as prized as Alpaca. Traditionally, the ancestry of both the alpaca and the llama were attributed to the guanaco, however recent DNA research has shown the alpaca may well have vicuña parentage; for more information please see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vicuña  and  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1088918/ 

Alpacas and llamas can successfully cross-breed and their resulting offspring are called huarizo, which are valued for their unique fleece and gentle dispositions. Alpacas are pseudoruminants and, like other camelids, have a three-chambered stomach; they chew their food in a figure eight motion. Their digestive system is very sensitive and must be kept healthy and balanced. They use a variety of sounds for communication. They're kept in grazing heads throughout the year on the level heights of the Andes of southern Peru, northern Bolivia, Ecuador, and northern Chile at an altitude of 3,500 m (11,500 ft) to 5,000 m (16,000 ft) above sea level.

Alpaca fiber is lustrous, soft, and silky, warmer than wool, and not prickly like wool. Alpaca fibre has no lanolin, so it won't repel water, but it is hypoallergenic. It's also flame resistant; it meets the US Consumer Product Safety Commission's standards.

ALPACA CARE:
Professionally dry clean with Perchloroethylene.
Short cycle.
Minimum extraction.
Tumble warm. 

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ANGORA WOOL (RABBIT'S HAIR)

 


 

Angora wool comes from the Angora rabbit, a variety of domestic rabbit bred specifically for its long, silky soft wool; there are many individual breeds. The wool is removed by shearing, combing, or plucking. 

ANGORA WOOL (RABBIT'S HAIR) CARE:
Professionally dry clean with Perchloroethylene.
Short cycle.
Minimum extraction.
Tumble warm. 

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MOHAIR  (Goat)

 


 

Mohair is a silk-like yarn made from the hair of the Angora goat; it should not be confused with the fur from the angora rabbit, which is called angora wool. Mohair is composed mostly of keratin, a protein found in the hair, wool, horns and skin of all mammals. While it has scales like wool, the scales are not fully developed, merely indicated, and thus mohair does not felt as wool does.  It's often blended with wool or alpaca;  blending with heavily scaled wool helps the smooth mohair fibers hold their shape and stick together when spun into yarn.
Mohair's texture resembles fine human hair, and it's often used for doll hair and teddy bears. Mohair takes dye exceptionally well, producing vivid saturated colors, and it has a distinctive lustre created by the way the fiber reflects light.

 Mohair fiber is approximately 25–45 microns in diameter. It increases in diameter with the age of the goat, growing along with the animal. Fine hair from younger animals is used for finer applications such as clothing, and the thicker hair from older animals is more often used for carpets and heavy fabrics intended for outerwear.

Mohair is a superb insulator and will be warmer than other fibers even in a light weight garments.  The insulating properties make it warm in winter yet due to its moisture wicking properties, it remains cool in summer. It is durable, resilient, naturally elastic, flame resistant and crease resistant and  notable for its high luster and sheen. It is considered a luxury fiber like cashmere, angora and silk, and is usually more expensive than most wool that comes from sheep. Mohair is one of the oldest textile fibers in use.

MOHAIR CARE:
Professionally dry clean.
- OR -
Hand wash in cold water with mild detergent.
Do not wring or twist.
Do not bleach.
Block to dry flat.


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CASHMERE (Goat)

 

 

Cashmere wool fiber for clothing and other textile articles is obtained from the neck region of Cashmere and other goats. The United Statues has strict standards for wool labels stating cashmere.

In the United States, under the U.S. Wool Products Labeling Act of 1939, as amended, (15 U. S. Code Section 68b(a)(6)), states that a wool or textile product may be labelled as containing cashmere only if:
1. Such wool product is the fine (dehaired) undercoat fibers produced by a cashmere goat (Capra hircus laniger);
2. The average diameter of the fiber of such wool product does not exceed 19 microns; and
3. Such wool product does not contain more than 3 percent (by weight) of cashmere fibers with average diameters that exceed 30 microns.
4. The average fiber diameter may be subject to a coefficient of variation around the mean that shall not exceed 24 percent.[3]

Historically, fine-haired Cashmere goats have been called Capra hircus laniger, as if they were a subspecies of the domestic goat Capra hircus. However, they are now more commonly considered part of the domestic goat subspecies Capra aegagrus hircus. Cashmere goats produce a double fleece that consists of a fine, soft undercoat or underdown of hair mingled with a straighter and much coarser outer coating of hair called guard hair. For the fine underdown to be sold and processed further, it must be dehaired. De-hairing is a mechanical process that separates the coarse hairs from the fine hair. After de-hairing, the resulting "cashmere" is ready to be dyed and converted into textile yarn, fabrics and garments. For more information, please see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cashmere_wool

CASHMERE CARE:
Professionally dry clean with Perchloroethylene.
Short cycle.
Minimum extraction.
Tumble warm. 

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PASHMINA (Goat)

 Pashmina is a fine type of cashmere wool. The textiles made from it were first woven in Kashmir. The wool comes from four distinct breeds of the Cashmere goat: the Changthangi or Kashmir Pashmina goat from the Changthang plateau in the Kashmir region, the Malra from Kargil area in the Kashmir region, the Chegu from Himachal Pradesh in northern India and Pakistan, and Chyangara or Nepalese Pashmina goat from Nepal. 

One distinct difference between Pashmina and generic Cashmere is the fibre diameter. Pashmina fibres are finer and thinner (12-15 microns) than generic cashmere fibre (15-19 microns), and therefore, ideal for making light weight apparel, i.e. fine scarves. 

PASHMINA CARE:
Professionally dry clean with Perchloroethylene.
Short cycle.
Minimum extraction.
Tumble warm. 

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SHEEP WOOL

 


Wool is the textile fibre obtained primarily from sheep. Wool can, however, include other animals as there are different international standards for wool yarn.  Wool is crimped and elastic, and hair and fur are not. Wool is a good insulator, for  both temperature and sound, and wool 
can absorb almost one-third of its own weight in water. It is generally a creamy white color, although some breeds of sheep produce natural colors, such as black, brown, silver, and random mixes.

Wool is safer around fire than cotton and some synthetic fibers because wool ignites at a higher temperature. It has a lower rate of flame spread, a lower rate of heat release, a lower heat of combustion, and doesn't melt or drip; it forms a char which is insulating and self-extinguishing, and it contributes less to toxic gases and smoke than other flooring products when used in carpets.Wool carpets are specified for high safety environments, such as trains and aircraft and wool is usually specified for garments for firefighters, soldiers, and others in occupations where they are exposed to the likelihood of fire. Wool is considered by the medical profession to be allergenic.

Sheep Breeds are often categorized by the type of their wool. Fine wool breeds are those that have wool of great crimp and density.  The body of a sheep yields many types of wool, with differing strengths, thicknesses, length of staple and impurities. Wool quality is determined by the wool's fiber diameter, crimp, yield, color, and staple strength. Wool grades are based on the measurement of the wool's diameter in microns; fiber diameter is the single most important wool characteristic determining quality and price.  Any wool finer than 25 microns can be used for garments, while coarser grades are used for outerwear or rugs. The finer the wool, the softer it is, while coarser grades are more durable and less prone to pilling. The finest Australian and New Zealand Merino wools are known as 1PP, which is the industry benchmark of excellence for Merino wool 16.9 microns and finer. Organic wool is increasingly popular; it's very limited in supply and mostly comes from New Zealand and Australia.

 

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WOOL CLASSSIFICATIONS
            

The USA Wool Products Labeling Act of 1939 has three classifications: 
1. "Wool" is  (quote) "the fiber from the fleece of the sheep or lamb or hair of the Angora or Cashmere goat (and may include the so-called specialty fibers from the hair of the camel, alpaca, llama, and vicuna) which has never been reclaimed from any woven or felted wool product" (end quote).
2. "Virgin wool" and "new wool" are also used to refer to such never used wool. 
3. There are two categories of recycled wool (also called reclaimed, recycled, or shoddy wool):
3A. "Reprocessed wool" identifies "wool which has been woven or felted into a wool product and subsequently reduced to a fibrous state without having been used by the ultimate consumer".
3B. "Reused wool" refers to such wool that has been used by the ultimate consumer.

 

 

Reclaimed, shoddy, or recycled wool is made by cutting or tearing apart existing wool fabric and respinning the resulting fibers. This process makes the wool fibers shorter, and as a result, the remanufactured fabric is inferior to the original. The recycled wool may be mixed with raw wool, wool noil, or another fiber such as cotton to increase the average fiber length. Such yarns are typically used as weft yarns with a cotton warp. 

RAG WOOL is a sturdy wool fiber made into yarn and used in many rugged applications such as gloves.

WORSTED WOOL is a strong, long-staple, combed wool yarn with a hard surface. Worsted can refer to a high-quality type of wool yarn, the fabric made from this yarn, and a yarn weight category. The name derives from Worstead, a village in the English county of Norfolk. Worsted fabric made from wool has a natural recovery; it quickly returns to its natural shape. Non-glossy worsted will become shiny with use or abrasion.

WORSTED CLOTH, archaically also known as "stuff", is lightweight and has a coarse texture. The weave is usually twill or plain.

Twilled fabrics such as whipcord, gabardine and serge are often made from worsted yarn. Worsted is also used for carpets, clothing, hosiery, gloves and baize.

 WORSTEDS DIFFER FROM WOOLENS, in that the natural crimp of the wool fibre is removed in the process of spinning the yarn. In 'tropical' worsteds this use of tightly spun, straightened wool combined with a looser weave permits the free flow of air through the fabric.

Worsted wool fabric is typically used in the making of tailored garments such as suits, as opposed to woollen wool, which is used for knitted items such as sweaters.  

Woolen Wool is a soft, short-staple, carded wool yarn typically used for knitting. In traditional weaving, woolen weft yarn (for softness and warmth) is frequently combined with a worsted warp yarn for strength on the loom.

For more information, please see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wool

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LAMBSWOOL (Sheep)

Lambswool is wool which is 50mm or shorter from the first shearing of a sheep, at around the age of seven months. It is soft, elastic, and slippery. It's often used in high-grade textiles and ballerinas use it to line their ballet shoes.

LAMBSWOOOL CARE:
Professionally dry clean with Perchloroethylene.
Short cycle.
Minimum extraction.
Tumble warm. 

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BLENDS OF LAMBSWOOL & ANGORA (RABBIT'S HAIR) & NYLON:
Professionally dry clean with Perchloroethylene.
Short cycle.
Minimum extraction.
Tumble warm. 

MERINO & WORSTED WOOL:
Professionally dry clean with Perchloroethylene.
Short cycle.
Minimum extraction.
Tumble warm. 


OILED WOOL:
Hand wash in cold water.
Do not wring or twist.
Do not bleach.
Block to dry flat.

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SHETLAND WOOL

In November 2011, Shetland wool produced in the Shetlands gained protected geographical status with a protected designation of origin (PDO) classification as "Native Shetland Wool"

The Shetland sheep is a small, wool-producing breed of sheep originating in the Shetland Isles of Scotland, but now kept worldwide. It's classified as a landrace.  A landrace is a domesticated, locally adapted traditional variety of a species that has developed over time, through adaptation to its natural and cultural environment of agriculture and pastoralism, and due to isolation from other populations of the species.
The Shetland is one of the smallest British breeds, and compared to commercial breeds, shetlands are small, and slow-growing. They have, however, survived for centuries in difficult conditions on a poor diet, so they absolutely thrive in better conditions. They're hardy, thrifty, easy lambers, adaptable and long-lived. Shetlands retain many of their primitive survival instincts, and are much easier to care for than many modern breeds.  Shetland sheep coloring is remarkably diverse.  They can show almost all possible sheep colors and patterns; the breed association recognizes eleven main colors and thirty different coat patterns and markings, many of which occur in combination.

For more information, please see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shetland_sheep#Shetland_wool

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GENERAL CARE FOR WOOL SWEATERS **WITH** LEATHER BUTTONS:
Professionally dry clean with Perchloroethylene.
Short cycle.
Minimum extraction.
Tumble warm. 

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SHETLAND WOOL **WITHOUT** LEATHER BUTTONS:
Hand wash in cold water.
Do not wring or twist.
Do not bleach.
Block to dry flat.

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GENERAL CARE FOR WOOL SWEATERS **WITHOUT** LEATHER BUTTONS:
Hand wash in cold water.
Do not wring or twist.
Do not bleach.
Block to dry flat.


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NON-WOVEN WOOLS

There is a group of wool fibres made without weaving. Felt from wool is considered to be the oldest known non-woven textile.  Boiled wool, felted wool, and wool felt are similar; these processes date back to at least the Middle Ages. Felt refers to a textile material created using a variant of process involving heating, agitating, shrinking, compressing, and interlocking the fibers into a tighter felt-like mass. All felt is absorbent. It's used in clothing, as a sound vibration damper, for cushioning and padding moving parts, to keep things from scratching, and for minimizing friction. 

For more information, please see:
 http://pioneerthinking.com/felting-fulling-or-boiled-wool

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NON-WOVEN WOOLS CARE:
All require the same basic care instructions:
Professionally dry clean.
- OR -
Hand wash in cold water with mild detergent.
Do not wring or twist.
Do not bleach.
Block to dry flat.

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BOILED WOOL

Boiled wool is a special type of non-woven fabric created by a mechanical process. The process involves shrinking various materials (including but not limited to natural fiber and synthetic blends) by agitating the mixed material in suds and hot water until the fibers compress and interlock. The result is a tight, dense mass created without using chemicals.

FULLING refers specifically to subjecting fibre that has already been woven or knitted to this process using heat / shrinkage / agitation / compression / interlocking.

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WOOL FELT & FELTED WOOL

Wool felt and felted wool both use wool roving (the name for raw sheared wool that's been cleaned and carded). They are, however, two distinctly different textiles, each with its' own look and feel.

 

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WOOL FELT

Wool Felt is a non-woven textile, produced without thread or weaving. It starts with wool roving that's process by adding heat, moisture and agitation; the roving compacts and matts together tightly to form what is known as pure wool felt.

Wool felt blends use this same process, with a combination of wool fibers plus other material. The most common combination is wool and rayon. Rayon is derived from wood pulp, and has properties similar to cotton and linen, blending easily with wool. Wool felt doesn't readily fray or pill, and it sews easily.

 

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FELTED WOOL

Felted Wool is a woven textile involving thread and weaving. Like wool felt, it starts as wool roving, but after the roving is cleaned and carded, it's spun into thread which is then woven into wool cloth. The cloth is washed in hot water and dried on high heat to emulate the “add heat, moisture, and agitation” process used to make wool felt. This process turns the wool fabric into felted wool, and felted wool has a great drape.

Felted wool contracts the original cloth into a thicker 'puffier' texture that's “soft and fluffy” . The results when felting wool vary depending on the weave of the fabric, the wool content (whether or not it is 100% pure wool) and wash/dry temperatures.

Wool roving is also spun into knitting yarn. Wool sweater, scarves, and mittens knitted from wool yarn can also be "felted" however, wool yarn is considerably thicker than wool thread and will not compact as tightly as wool fabric woven from thread, regardless of the wash/dry temperature. 
You can "felt" an already knitted garment at home; it will have a looser, bulkier texture and is more likely to fray.

 

For more information, please see:
http://oliverrabbit.com/journal/2016/1/11/what-is-the-difference-between-wool-felt-and-felted-wool


 ***** 

In short, have fun with your clothes and take care of them. After all, you're a "picture worth a thousand words"!

 ***** 

 

I sign our magazine articles "See Into The Invisible". Thanks for reading.

Best Wishes, 
Debra Spencer

All Content is © Debra Spencer, Suit Yourself™ International. Technical Library FAQ Index ISSN 2474-820X. All Rights Reserved. Please do not reproduce in part or in whole without express written consent. Thank you.
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All Content is ©2019 Debra Spencer, Appanage™at www.suityourself.international Suit Yourself ™ International, 120 Pendleton Point, Islesboro Island, Maine, 04848, USA 44n31 68w91 Technical Library FAQ Index ISSN 2474-820X. All Rights Reserved. Please do not reproduce in part or in whole without express written consent. Thank you.

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All Content is ©2019 Debra Spencer, Appanage™at www.suityourself.international Suit Yourself ™ International, 120 Pendleton Point, Islesboro Island, Maine, 04848, USA 44n31 68w91 Technical Library FAQ Index ISSN 2474-820X. All Rights Reserved. Please do not reproduce in part or in whole without express written consent. Thank you.
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