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Suit Yourself™ International Magazine #29: Soap Bubbles Part I of 2

  

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Suit Yourself™ International Magazine #29 Soap Bubbles, Part I of 2: Soap

 

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SOAP & BUBBLES, Part 1 of 2: SOAP

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This is the 29th in our articles series and I hope this information is helpful!

All previous articles in the series can be found in our Library and in the Magazine Archives.  Upon request, reprint permission and an addendum of substantiating resources are available for all magazine articles. If you are experiencing problems viewing this newsletter in email, please use one of these links. When requesting reprint permission or addenda, please include the issue date and full issue title. All magazine articles are copyright © Debra Spencer, Suit Yourself ™ International. All rights reserved. ISSN 2474-820X. 

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Are you feeling adventurous? I hope so. The familiar things around us seem so simple that they scarcely need explaining.  Yet even a mild curiosity about them reveals them as more than they seem, and always leads to surprises. 

This is the first of two parts:  SOAP is part one, and BUBBLES is part two.

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        Les bulles du savon; Magicien et chatons.

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You may or may not know there's a soap bubble revival going on. Bubbles are being avidly studied at the micro and macro levels, on the international space station,  at bubble events, and performers specialize in bubble shows.

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Magicien et l'enfants.

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Serious amateur competitions are regularly held around the world in search of perfecting this remarkable, elusive phenomena. Fans share investigations into shapes, sizes, bubble recipe chemistry, and ambient effects of local climate, gravity, zero gravity, humidity, temperature, ground cover, elevation, etc. etc. etc.

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Seifenblasen im Sonnenuntergang, Ipanema.

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Why are soap bubbles such a big deal?  If it weren't for a phenomena called 'surface tension', bubbles would be impossible. Bubbles are just a roughly spherical volume of slightly compressed air, surrounded by a thin film of water, and thin films of water spontaneously, and almost instantaneously, collapse into droplets due to pressure instability. No bubbles are generated at all if you agitate pure water vigorously.

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Enfants, garçons, et filles se rafraichir de la chaleur de l'été dans le Connecticut, 1935, par Luis Marden.

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But just add soap, and everything changes. Since there are no soap bubbles without soap, I'll start with SOAP. 

Yes, soap bubble information is readily found elsewhere, but a lot of information is missing, misplaced, or inadequately treated. For example, the history of soap is usually presented in connection with gunpowder and the production of saltpetre, which used similar chemical compounds (alkalis). Other bits are buried in surface tension discussions. This two-part article is my small attempt to try and fill in a few gaps.  

At the end of part two of this article, I include recipes for making your own bubble mixture, links for large and unusual wand constructions, and other useful resources. 

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Most people today use soap for something.  And everyone loves bubbles.  They're pretty, and fascinating. 

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Baleine!

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World rulers have always loved bubbling fountains.

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A group of photos taken at the bubble festival, bulled de savon au château de Versailles, France.

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17th century Flemish paintings portray children blowing bubbles with clay pipes. 

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La famille et les bulles de savon; original 18th century oil painting available from Suit Yourself™ International.

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Bubbles are symbols holding our thoughts. Bubbles are constantly used to illustrate thinking.  

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 Bubbles are constantly used to illustrate thinking; a boardroom construct. 

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Bubbles have always appeared in art and in advertising.

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Jean-Baptiste Siméon Chardin, Bulle de Savon,  XVIIIe. 

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We've had bubbles at home ever since the 1940's when the Chicago company Chemtoy began selling bubble solution to the public. 

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A bubble bear appears bigger in the hands of this little girl.

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TEENY SOAP HISTORY

Information on when or how soap came into general use is just not available. The Encyclopedia Brittanica 14th Edition mentions incense surfactants used in India, but nothing in China. Steam baths, poultices, hot water immersions, and hot wet towel wraps, were ubiquitous in ancient times, just not soap. 

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An ancient painting of a Roman bath, from Joly. 

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Soap is basically a soluble fat; it's an example of a detergent, a surface-active agent, a surfactant.  Aside from cleaning, greasing, lubricating stuck zippers, making rings around bathtubs, and foam that separates minerals, what else is special about soap? Well, for one thing, it's  new. One surprising fact about soap is that it's a relatively recent invention. The earliest manufacturing of soap was only in small amounts, in the 9th century in Marseille and in Venice from the 14th. 

Borax, a boron compound, a mineral, seems the earliest known 'cleanser'. It occurs naturally in evaporite deposits produced by the repeated evaporation of seasonal lakes.  In the 8th Century AD, it was imported via the Silk Road to the Arabian Peninsula, and was first known from the deserts of western Tibet, in dry lake beds, by the name of tincal, derived from the Sanskrit. Borax was, and is, used for many purposes, cleaning among them; more information is below, under "The Virtues Of Borax".

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ETYMOLOGY

The Greek for soap is SAPWN, and all the modern words come from it. 

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Lion at the Bronx Zoo having his bath.

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For bubble, the English word "bubble" is likely onomatopoeic, from the sound made by the lips when making bubbles. In German, "eine Blase" is also associated with blowing, as was the word in ancient Greek, fusa, which came from fusaw, "to blow." In Latin, the word was "bulla," mentioned by Ovid, which gave the French "une bulle." These seem derived rather from "to boil" than "to blow." "Bulla" was used for the spherical seals of papal documents, and by extension to their contents. In Spanish, a soap bubble is "una pompa de jabón" but the colloquial word for a bubble is "barbuja."

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THE ANCIENTS HAD A DIRTY PAST

Up until soap, when it came to personal grooming, humans kept 'clean', if you could call it that, by being copy cats, that is to say, copying cats. Really. 

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Cat lapping milk.

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The cat's principle, of rolling in something powdery, and then licking it off, is very much in evidence; all contaminants come off with the dust.

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The cat's rough tongue is like a brush and he will spend a lot of time cleaning himself. A friend will be glad to help with the part he can't reach himself.

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The ancients 'kept clean' in a different way compared with modern standards. They had water, they had heat, and they used a lot of abrasives, powder, dye, oil, and perfume.

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Caldarium, Roman Baths.

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The ancient Romans record rubbing oil into their skins and hair, then scraping it off and following with immersion in hot water.  

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    Dessin contemporaine d'un bain roman. 

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Galen mentions using soap as medicine, and that it's better than lye or soda for washing. We have records of various absorbent materials being used on greasy surfaces, such as the use of talc to dust, and then comb, the hair, then rinsing it. 

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Madame de Pompadour, colored engraving.

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We know the massive mineral talc, or steatite, is also called soapstone, probably from its' soap-like softness and appearance.  

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Hybrid vegetable glycerin soap rocks mimic real turquoise, green garnet, amethyst, and red garnet rocks. Gentle for sensitive skin. Handcrafted soap available exclusively from ComputerGear.com.jpg, a great site for Science geeks.

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There are ancient records of urine being used, and lemon juice when available. A soap was made in ancient times specifically for washing hair, that also tinted the hair, usually red; this was borrowed from the Celts and Germans, who most desired the red hair, rather than any associated personal fastidiousness. The Romans and Turks had public steam baths, and still do.

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Ephessus Kusadasi, Turkey.

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For washing clothes, before soap, plants were in common use, such as the yucca, or 'soapweed'. A lye of wood ashes was used to wash clothes, and probably greasy dishes as well. Metal cooking utensils were also hung outside during inclement weather, using sand, wind, and rain storms to 'season' and beat them 'clean'. Thick woven rugs, saddle bags, and blankets were hung on a line and manually beaten. Fulling, the removal of oil from wool, involved softening and felting the wool, and used fuller's earth, usually diatomaceous earth, which adsorbed the oil and was then washed out.

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Harry Whittier Frees photograph, circa 1910, Kitten Washing Dishes.

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SOAP IS A TALE OF TWO ENDS:  GREASE & ALKALI

Until recently, all soap was produced via boiling and precipitation, using a soluble salt, fat, and carbon mixture. Materials such as vegetable oils and animal fats (greasy triester mixtures derived from diverse fatty acids, and called triglycerides) are forced to react with sodium or potassium hydroxide (lye) to produce glycerol and a fatty acid salt, called 'soap'.  The one or two step process, both of which are called saponification, convert a fat or oil into soap by treating it with an alkali. 

The one-step triglyceride reaction with lye is the most common. In the two-step reaction, steam hydrolysis of the triglyceride yields carboxylic acid (rather than its' salt) and glycerol. In the second step of this two-step process, alkali neutralizes the fatty acid to produce soap. The two-step process is slower, allowing purification of the fatty acids and producing a higher quality soap.

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How to make soap in one gif! Réalisation de la synthèse du savon.

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There is a reason alkaline solutions are effective at removing grease. All soaps have a charged end that attracts water molecules strongly, and a hydrocarbon end that attracts molecules similar to itself, which are not soluble in water. In other words, hydrophilic water-loving molecules bind to one end, and hydrophobic water-fearing molecules, such as those of grease, oil, and dirt in general, will bind to the other end.  You might think of soap as a substance that is both coming and going simultaneously. Oil and dirt become covered with a hydrophilic water-loving film that's easily washed away by water. Water is essential to this process, and thorough rinsing is necessary. 

Soaps have distinct properties depending on the nature of the alkali that is used in their production.  When sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is used,  this produces a "hard soap"; hard soaps can also be used in water containing magnesium Mg, chloride Cl, and calcium Ca salts. By contrast, when potassium hydroxide (KOH) is used, a soft soap is formed. 

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Soap Company Research, chem 105, cartoon by Sidney Harris, www.sciencecartoonsplus.com.

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The fatty acid source choice will also affect the soap's melting point. Most early hard soaps were manufactured using animal fats, and potassium hydroxide (KOH) from wood ash; these were solid. Modern soaps however are mostly manufactured using  polyunsaturated triglycerides like vegetable oils. As in the triglycerides from which they are formed, the salts of these acids have weaker inter-molecular forces and thus lower melting points; they're 'softer' soap

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SAPONIFICATION ~ MAKING SOAP

Most soap is a soluble sodium or potassium salt of a long-chain hydrocarbon (fatty) acid, for example H3C(CH2)16COO-Na+, which is sodium stearate, containing 18 carbon atoms in a straight chain. Sodium stearate is the sodium salt of stearic acid. This white solid is the most common soap.

To make soap, fats or oils, from which the fatty acids come, are boiled with strong NaOH (sodium hydroxide) or KOH (potassium hydroxide).

The reaction is H2COSt-HCOSt-H2OSt + 3NaOH → 3StNa + H2OH-CHOH-CH2OH, where St is the stearate radical (the salts and esters of stearic acid are called stearates). 

The first substance produced is a typical fat, an ester of glycerol (glycerine), a tribasic alcohol, in which each OH is replaced by OSt. 

Boiling with the alkali of choice regenerates the glycerol while freeing the St- ions that are the actual soap. 

The soap is precipitated from the solution by adding salt, NaCl, which raises the Na concentration so much that the solubility product of the soap is exceeded. 

Adding NaCl (sodium chloride, or 'table salt") gets sodium stearate, a hard soap, not very soluble in cold water. Adding KOH, potassium oxide, produces a soft soap; it's water soluble and much easier to use. 

In the early 19th century, a way to eke out a living while clearing the American midwest, was to boil, in large pots over a fire, the ashes of felled and burned trees, concentrating the extracted lye, and then selling it as potash. This potash was used mainly for making soap, and for purifying saltpeter for gunpowder. The fat used came mostly from pigs, some came from cattle (tallow), but tallow was valued for making cheap candles. The better soaps were made from olive oil,vegetable oils, or other 'high-quality' fats. 
 

Glycerine soaps.

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Today, potash refers any of various mined and manufactured salts that contain potassium in water-soluble form. The name derives from pot ash, which refers to plant ashes soaked in water in a pot, the primary means of manufacturing the product before the industrial era. The word potassium is derived from potash.

Modern handmade soap makers who aim for bar soap use NaOH (sodium hydroxide, lye). Because saponification values are listed in KOH (potassium hydroxide), the value must be converted from potassium to sodium to make bar soap; potassium soaps make a paste, gel or liquid soap. To convert KOH values to NaOH values, divide the KOH values by the ratio of the molecular weights of KOH and NaOH (1.403). Saponification value (or "saponification number"/"Koettstorfer number", also referred to as "sap" for short, represents the number of milligrams of potassium hydroxide required to saponify 1g of fat under the conditions specified.

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Modern glycerine soap bar labeled: "Introverts, unscented, because seriously you're not going anywhere anyway."

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Other fat sources include cottonseed oil, coconut oil, and palm oil; the associated fatty acids have the formulas H3C(CH2)nCOOH.

If n = 10, this is lauric acid. If n = 14, it is palmitic acid. If n = 16, it is stearic acid. Natural fatty acids usually have even numbers of carbon atoms. 

Oleic acid, occurring in oils such as olive, is an unsaturated acid, H3C(CH2)7CH=CH(CH2)7COOH with a double bond between the 9th and 10th carbon atoms. 

All these sources feature long chains that can easily become entangled with similar molecules.

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BUBBLE BUBBLE TOIL AND TROUBLE

Soap became ubiquitous nearly as soon as it was introduced. Advertisements promptly promoted soap for everything: people, pets, babies, hair, cars, floors, clothes, dishes, walls, and even as a germicide. The public began using it in copious quantities. 

Unfortunately, the calcium, magnesium and iron salts of these soap anions are quite insoluble, and if present in the water, calcium stearate (or similar) precipitates out, and forms a gummy deposit; this is what makes up the familiar "bathtub ring." 

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Industrial building chimneys burping bubbles. 

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Water containing these cations is called "hard." They may be largely eliminated by adding sodium carbonate ("washing soda") to the water before the soap, or for gentleness to the hands, sodium phosphate, which is less alkaline.  Borax is a still better addition. Since the soap isn't very soluble in cold water, it's also necessary to use hot, or even boiling, water. With these precautions, soap will do a very good job.

By the 1940's, the search was on for a soap anion that wouldn't precipitate with the usual cations of hard water, and would, at the same time, be more soluble. Sodium cetyl sulphate, H3C(CH2)15CH2OSO2ONa, meets these requirements. The hydrocarbon end is like that of familiar soaps, but the charged end is a sulphate radical. 

These new soaps were called detergents, mainly to distinguish them, but you can see they're still pretty much the same thing. 

Tide was an early example of a detergent. It didn't have to be used with washing soda, and it worked in cool water. 
 

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Leo Burnett, Dubai: Heinz ketchup and TIDE -  Overcome your fear of the spill.

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Instead of sulphates, many other detergents were sulphonates, and some might even contain benzene rings, as in sodium alkylphenylsulphonate, RArSO2ONa, where R, the "alkyl," is a long-chain hydrocarbon and Ar is an "aryl" or aromatic group.

Dreft was an example of such a detergent, and was even gentler than the sulphates. There are many different compositions, but the idea is clear.

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Dreft advertisement, 1948, "Hide that dishpan, until you get 4-way improved Dreft!"

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Unfortunately, these new sulphates and sulphonates, especially those with aromatic groups, are not biodegradable. When washed down the sink, they remain in the water and aren't removed by sewage treatment. 

Uh Oh.  Streams and rivers began to foam. 

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Sulphates, sulphonates, and chlorine, bubbling in the swimming pool.

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Before the whole country was covered by suds, chemists went back to work, and created "biodegradable detergents". By the early 1960's, these had replaced the earlier "hard" detergents. 

Many current products proudly state they contain no phosphates (phosphorus is a plant nutrient that can cause "blooms"), but it seems detergents never did. Phosphates were added to make the detergent work better. 

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Eco Orange makes you wonder just what is in the container, because from the label, even Hot Air won't qualify.  No Phosphates. Also no ammonia, solvents, acids, bleach, toxins, butyl, VOC, SLS, SLES, animal testing, animal ingredients, ozone safe, non-toxic, recyclable container, biodegradable, VOC Compliant.

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Borax is an excellent and unobjectionable washing aid, and it's again available online and in supermarkets; it has its' own section below extolling its' virtues. Sodium carbonate and ammonia are also excellent (ammonia eliminates the "films" left by glass cleaners), but sodium carbonate is definitely strongly alkaline and should not be used with bare hands. If you can tolerate phosphates, trisodium phosphate (TSP) is a superior washing agent all by itself. 

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SAPONIFICATION AND ART DAMAGE


Apparently, soap chemistry, under certain conditions, proceeds all by itself on its' own, without any intervention, encouragement, meddling, or correction involving  human chemists. If you think foaming streams and rivers is scary, you should see what's happening to our art.

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Mona Lisa blowing a bubble, modified from the original by Leonardo Da Vinci (1503-1505).

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Oil paint pigments, and their ground layers, contain heavy metals such as lead white, red lead, or zinc white. As early as 1912, we noticed that these heavy metals were reacting with free fatty acids in the oil medium binding the pigments together; soaps would form in a paint or under layer, and migrate outwards to the painting's surface, where over time, they would be visible as damage and deformation.

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John Singer Sargent, 1884, portrait painting of Madame Pierre Gautreau ("Madame X").

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These 'saponified' regions can deform a painting's surface; they can form small clusters of crusty visible lumps or protrusions that scatter light. They may appear prominently only in certain areas, and not necessarily throughout a surface. Sometimes chalky white deposits form in isolated  regions of a painting's surface, a problem referred to as "blooming" or "efflorescence". 

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Detail of portrait painting, John Singer Sargent, 1884, portrait of Madame Pierre Gautreau ("Madame X").

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We've observed the problem in many works dating from the 15th through 20th centuries, of different geographic origin, and painted on various supports such as canvas, paper, wood, and copper. The problem is widespread, and the process is not fully understood.

We don't know precisely what factors cause it, we really haven't a clue precisely what triggers it, and we don't fully understand the precise stellium of conditions under which it grows worse. We don't know how to stop it, or if it can be stopped. The appearance of painting saponification is inconsistent; it appears to have random triggers and it doesn't occur in all oil paintings containing susceptible material.  Age, environment, temperature, storage, pressure, humidity, and movement are just some of the factors involved.  At present, repeated retouching is the only known temporarily delaying restoration method. 

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THE VIRTUES OF BORAX

Many people today have forgotten boron and borax, but it's the earliest known "cleanser".  This naturally occurring substance does a doozy of a cleaning job, among many other things and is safely used in more ways than I can possibly document here.  It's an amazing mineral.   

First known from the deserts of western Tibet, in dry lake beds, it received the name of tincal, derived from the Sanskrit, and in the 8th Century AD, it was imported via the Silk Road to the Arabian Peninsula.   

Borax is a component of many detergents, cosmetics, and enamel glazes. Borax hydrolyzes in water to form a slightly alkaline solution that's good for cleaning since it emulsifies grease and oil. It also softens water by precipitating calcium borate. 

J. B. Calvert gives a household hint for preparing borax soap for really difficult laundry jobs: Cut up one pound laundry soap, add to one ounce of borax and a quart of water, and boil until uniform. Allow to cool, apparently in a mold, and cut into bars when solid. (http://mysite.du.edu/~jcalvert/phys/boron.htm)

Powdered borax is white, consisting of soft colorless crystals that dissolve easily in water. 

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Borax Pentahydrate (Na2B4O7·5H2O) packaged as Rocket Borax, super fine pure borax powder, Waymill, made in England.

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Borax glazes were used in China from 300AD, and some tincal even reached the West, where the Arabic alchemist Geber seems to mention it in 700AD. Marco Polo mentions in his Travels that he brought some back to Italy in the 13th century. Around 1600AD, Agricola reports its' use as a flux in metallurgy.  In 1777, boric acid was recognized in the  soffioni, the hot springs near Florence, Italy; it became known as sal sedativum, with primarily medical uses. The rare mineral is called sassolite, found at Sasso, Italy, and this was the main source of European borax from 1827 to 1872, until American sources replaced it.  Borax was brought into common use in the late 19th century, when Francis Marion Smith's Pacific Coast Borax Company marketed it for numerous applications, under the 20 Mule Team Borax trademark. The trademark refers to the method by which borax was apparently hauled out of the California and Nevada deserts, in large enough quantities to make it cheap and commercially viable.

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Borax, from Cornell Biochemistry.

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Molten borax reacts with metal oxides to form borates that dissolve in the melt, so it's useful as a welding and soldering flux in metallurgy, and in colored enamels for iron. In fact, this was the earliest use of borax, as a pottery glaze.

Borax is often used as a flux for forge welding of iron and steel; a mixture of borax and ammonium chloride is used. It lowers the melting point of the unwanted iron oxide (scale), allowing it to run off. Borax is also used mixed with water as a flux when soldering jewelry metals such as gold or silver; it allows the molten solder to flow evenly over the joint in question. Borax is also a good flux for "pre-tinning" tungsten with zinc, making the tungsten soft-solderable. 

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Anhydrous borax (Na2B4O7) welding powder flux.

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It's used to make buffer solutions in biochemistry, as a fire retardant, as an anti-fungal compound, in fiberglass manufacturing, neutron-capture shields for radioactive sources, a texturing agent in cooking, as a precursor for other boron compounds, and along with its inverse, boric acid, as an insecticide. In the gold extraction process, Borax was reportedly used by gold miners in the Philippines in the 1900s. 

Boron is one of the simplest atoms (the only simpler ones are hydrogen, helium, lithium and beryllium); it's found in a variety of similar minerals, all related to borax, sodium tetraborate, Na2B4O7·10H2O. 

The name comes from the Arabic buraq, "white." Borax is the same in French and German as in English, but the element is bor. In Spanish, the words are bóraxo and boro.  The word Borax usually refers to the decahydrate, however the term 'borax' is used often to refer to several closely related minerals or chemical compounds differing in their crystal water content.

Borax occurs naturally in evaporite deposits produced by the repeated evaporation of seasonal lakes. It's found mainly in arid regions; borates are soluble to some degree and would have been leached away long ago in a humid region. They were deposited originally from waters associated with vulcanism. The natural deposits are dried-up lake beds. There are large amounts in California, Nevada, Chili, Argentina, Turkey, and elsewhere. 

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    Borax decahydrate is Na2B4O7·10H2O.  Here, sodium tetraborate decahydrate, labeled as"Borax Technical Grade Powder for General Reagent Use."

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When borax is added to a flame, it produces a yellow green color. Boron gives a blue-green flame; the brown amorphous form is  used in pyrotechnical devices as the color can be distinguished from the emerald green of copper. Boric acid is used to color methanol flames a transparent green. 

I can personally vouch for the recipes stated on the Wally's Borax Pentahydrate label. Remember, as usual, it's not an element that is intrinsically poisonous; toxicity depends on structure. Borax, in small amounts, is one of the 16 essential nutrients for plant growth however there can be a very tiny range between what is vital and what's toxic! With peaches, for example, 1 ppm (one part-per-million) is required, but more than 5 ppm is toxic. In the case of peaches, as the saying goes, a little dab will do 'ya, and more is NOT better. With this in mind, here are a few of my personal modifications. 

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Wally's Borax Pentahydrate, labeled with usage recipes and suggestions.

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Borax is ideal for treating wood against borer and rots. 150 grains to 1 litre of water sprayed or painted on. Let dry. Two to three applications is best. Wood can then be painted or varnished.

I've used Borax countless times restoring wood frames and furniture over 100 years of age. I used this treatment on a small wood dinghy and it also stopped all the incidental leaks. Borax can also be used to slow or stop a car radiator leak and engine block leaks.

I use a water solution of it to remove tar and nicotine stains from old oil paintings, wood furniture, and gilded wood frames, including those with fragile gilded stucco. My grandparents found it safe for bleaching teeth; they often used it as a tooth powder, a form of tooth 'paste' because it was very effective at removing tar and nicotine stains.  It is also an excellent anti-fungal for oil paintings and burlap canvas, and does the same as a foot soak, and for thrush in horses' hooves. Shellac dissolved into heated borax will make an indelible ink for dip pens. Taxidermists use it as a preservative. 

Use Borax as a cleaning powder for hand basins, fridges, baths, toilets, etc. As a Laundry powder for washing clothes, mix 50% Borax with 50% Baking Soda.  For a moth-proofing wash for wool, mix 10% Borax with water.  You can use it as a buffering agent to control the PH in swimming pools.

For ant control, mix 50% Borax with 50% icing sugar but be sure to place small amounts of it (a tablespoon or two is sufficient!) inside small, individual vented containers that pets and children cannot get into, and that ants can get into, and then set those containers in inaccessible places where pets and children cannot get into them, such as up very high on the top upper closed cabinet shelving.

 

For more information:
Calvert, J.B., Introduction to Boron http://mysite.du.edu/~jcalvert/phys/boron.htm
Wikipedia Borax: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Borax

 

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ADDITIONAL RESOURCES  ~ BOOKS & ARTICLES

Encyclopedia Brittanica, 14th Edition, 1929.

Calvert, J.B., Introduction to Boron http://mysite.du.edu/~jcalvert/phys/boron.htm

Wikipedia Borax: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Borax

C. V. Boys, Soap Bubbles; Their Colours and the Forces that Mould Them (New York: Dover, 1959).

Marcel Minnaert, Light and Colour In The Open Air (London: Bell and Sons, 1940, Reissued by Dover, 1954 and by Bell, 1959). English translation by Kremer-Priest of De Natuurkunde van het Vrije Veld (Zutphen: 1937). Dewey Classification: 535.

Cyril Isenberg; The Science of Soap Films and Soap Bubbles

J. R. Partington, A History of Greek Fire and Gunpowder (Cambridge: Heffer & Sons, 1960). pp. 306-309.

E. F. Degering, ed., Organic Chemistry (New York: Barnes & Noble College Outline Series, 1951). Chapter XXX, pp. 280-284. 

R. L. Bates, Geology of the Industrial Rocks and Minerals (New York: Dover, 1969). pp. 393-401.

L. Pauling and R. Hayward, The Architecture of Molecules (San Francisco: W. H. Freeman, 1964). Illustrations 32-36.

Oil Paint Saponification
https://www.thoughtco.com/definition-of-saponification-605959

Saponification,  Anne Marie Helmenstine, Ph.D
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saponification

Silvia A. Centeno; Dorothy Mahon (Summer 2009). Macro Leona, ed. "The Chemistry of Aging in Oil Paintings: Metal Soaps and Visual Changes". The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin. Metropolitan Museum of Art. 67 (1): 12–19. JSTOR 40588562. Pages 12-19.

Fleury, Paul (1912). "Manufacture And Treatments Of White Zinc". The Preparation and Uses of White Zinc Paints (1st ed.). London: London, Scott, Greenwood & son. "and although Petit declares this theory false, it is none the less on it and on its data that he bases his system of manufacture of hydrated white zinc, of which he is the inventor that is to say, the saponification of the oil, or the formation of metallic salts, dissolved therein"

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I sign our magazine articles "See Into The Invisible". Thanks for reading.

Best Wishes, 
Debra Spencer

All Content is © Debra Spencer, Suit Yourself™ International. Technical Library FAQ Index ISSN 2474-820X. All Rights Reserved. Please do not reproduce in part or in whole without express written consent. Thank you.
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All Content is ©2019 Debra Spencer, Appanage™at www.suityourself.international Suit Yourself ™ International, 120 Pendleton Point, Islesboro Island, Maine, 04848, USA 44n31 68w91 Technical Library FAQ Index ISSN 2474-820X. All Rights Reserved. Please do not reproduce in part or in whole without express written consent. Thank you.

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All Content is ©2019 Debra Spencer, Appanage™at www.suityourself.international Suit Yourself ™ International, 120 Pendleton Point, Islesboro Island, Maine, 04848, USA 44n31 68w91 Technical Library FAQ Index ISSN 2474-820X. All Rights Reserved. Please do not reproduce in part or in whole without express written consent. Thank you.
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