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Suit Yourself™ International Magazine #46: Putti Party Part 3

  

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Suit Yourself™ International Magazine  #46: Putti Party

Part Three

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This is the 46th in our articles series and I hope this information is helpful. 

All previous articles in the series can be found in our Library:
https://suityourself.international/libraryindex.html
and in the Magazine Archives:
https://suityourself.international/appanage/index.php?_a=newsletter
If you are experiencing problems viewing this newsletter in email, please use one of these links.

Upon request, reprint permission and an addendum of substantiating resources are available for all magazine articles. When requesting reprint permission or addenda, please include the issue date and full issue title. All magazine articles are copyright © Debra Spencer, Suit Yourself ™ International. All rights reserved. ISSN 2474-820X.
 

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PUTTI PARTY

Part Three

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Here's a look at western culture from the putti point of view as they emerge during the 18th century. Other articles in this series cover Prehistoric times to the Settecento (18th century), then the 19th and 20th centuries. Please also read Part One for a Putti overview. Like all of us, putti come in many shapes, sizes, and variations; what's important is what they represent, and how they are representing it.

We represent Putti at any given time in much the same way as we are being treated by others at that time; taking a moment to reflect on Putti history is thus both illuminating and of great practical utility.

Putti are fundamental metaphors.

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Agostino Carracci, Whispering Angels.

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BACK TO THE FUTURE

Because change is not linear, beginnings are hard to find. 


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Montage of 4 images; from left to right:
The Greco-Roman bas relief is from the 2nd century AD, from a collection in the Modena Museum in Italy. It depicts Phanes hatching from the world egg, encircled by the zodiac signs of the celestial equator. 
The Grueby Faience Bambino Tile  is from http //www.goantiques.com/embed/antique-articles/details?id=grueby-faience-tile-47329227 
The Christmas Story is a cover of an illustrated children's book from the author's private collection.
The early 20th century 18K oval Miraculous Medal from France is from the author's private collection.

The Grueby Faience Company was founded in 1894 in Revere, Massachusetts, by William Henry Grueby (Boston 1867—New York 1925). This was an award winning American ceramics company producing distinctive Art Nouveau vases and tiles during America's Arts and Crafts Movement. Due to mass-market competition, they went bankrupt in 1909 but continued with limited production until 1920.

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To find the 18th century, I have to back up into the late 17th century rather like parallel parking a car on a busy San Francisco hill street.

The European world of the 18th century is characterized variously as The Century of Philosophy, The Enlightenment, the Age of Enlightenment, the Age of Reason. In French: le Siècle des Lumières, Century of Lights. In German: Aufklärung, Enlightenment". 

All these designations refer to the same analogy:  during this time, there were foundational and fundamental changes in the ways humans structured their consciousness, and this changed their minds, thoughts and thinking, language, morality, behavior, social institutions, cultural conventions, politics, legal systems, families, and all forms of expression including, but not limited to, the arts and sciences.

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The Age Of Enlightenment; a Victorian gingerbread house is hiding behind a ton of lightening.
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I'd call this a domino chain reaction except there's a fundamental difference; a falling row of dominoes is linear, and these changes were interactively radiative. It's no surprise there's no consensus for any precise beginning date for these fundamental shifts in human consciousness.  Events during the time were characterized by upheaval to existing institutions and mental constructs, which resulted in massive consequences and structural alterations of the then known world, which continue to reverberate today.

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Structural alterations; a UFO arrives on Easter Island and bowls over the statues like they're dominos.
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In France, the years between 1715 and 1789 are called the Siècle des Lumières, the "Century of Enlightenments"; the period begins with the reign of Louis XV and ends with the French Revolution. However factually accurate this may be, many "Enlightenment" seeds occurred earlier than these events. 

In 1637,  René Descartes, published his seminal "Discours de la méthode pour bien conduire sa raison, et chercher la vérité dans les sciences". English: "Discourse on the Method of Rightly Conducting One's Reason and of Seeking Truth in the Sciences".  Descartes's work influenced the influences of his time, effectively shifting the epistemological basis from external authority to internal certainty. He gave the term "moral fibre" an entirely new meaning. 


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René Descartes gave the term "moral fibre" an entirely new meaning. Here, his holiness the 14th Dalai Lama pops off the top of his head, and out rises another Dalai Lama seated in the lotus position.
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Descartes's "Discours" presented a formalized systematic method for building a structure into one's being that would better enable it to discover truth: the concept of the Self as Software. Descartes wasn't the first to explain that parts of ourselves are malleable, and could be changed, altered, repaired, restructured, and reformulated at will and by will. He was however the first to make the concept accessible, usable, and practical to Westerners. And what is remarkable is that as a Westerner, he recognized the existence of a human mutable structure in the first place, had some ideas on how to change it, and that changing it was necessary, for when it's inherently faulty, it produces erroneous results. 

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When it's inherently faulty, it produces erroneous results; cell phone radiation.
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Applying a concept older than Euclid known as "proof by negation",  Descartes approached life using doubt instead of acceptance, and this choice helped him become aware of, and clear interference from, unconscious preconceived notions, and to assess the world from a fresh perspective.  

He offered now famous wise advice, including "be as firm, consistent, and resolute in my actions as I am able" and "Endeavor always to conquer myself rather than fortune, and change my desires rather than the order of the world, and in general, accustom myself to the persuasion that, except our own thoughts, there is nothing absolutely in our power; so that when we have done our best in things external to us, our ill-success cannot possibly be failure on our part." In Part I, §7 of Principles of Philosophy, he states, in Latin, Cogito ergo sum, and in part Part IV of the Discours, in French,  "Je pense, donc je suis". In English:  "I think, therefore I am", or "I'm thinking, therefore I exist". In French, the word  "âme" means both mind and soul, "corps" the physical body. Descartes proposes our capacity for awareness comes from our "âme" interacting with, and experiencing, our environment; he doesn't separate mind, body, and soul. 

Now, fast forward thirty years to 1687. 

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Fast forward 30 years to 1687.Walt Disney Studios, 1001 Dalmatians, Changing the Clock. 
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The Principia, Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Latin for Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy), a work in three books, is first published, in Latin, by Isaac Newton, on 5 July 1687.  After annotating and correcting his personal copy of the first edition, Newton published two further editions, in 1713 and 1726..The Principia contains the foundations of classical mechanics. Newton's laws of motion, Newton's law of universal gravitation, and Newton's derivation of Kepler's laws of planetary motion that Kepler had first obtained empirically. The Principia is considered one of the most important works in the history of science. By 1699, Gottfried Leibniz and Isaac Newton were arguing over who had first invented calculus. By 1711, the disagreement had escalated into an all-out Prioritätsstreit (German for a complex priority dispute) that remains unsettled to this day.   

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Newton and Leibniz  argued over who invented calculus. Kittens demonstrating transfer and conservation of momentum and energy using Newton's cradle.
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In 1689, the English philosopher John Locke published "An Essay Concerning Humane Understanding" (although dated 1890, it appeared in 1689). He followed this, in 1693, with "Some Thoughts Concerning Education", a treatise on the education of gentlemen intended for aristocrats. In his "Essay Concerning Human Understanding" (1690), Locke outlined a new theory of mind, contending that mind did not contain innate ideas, but rather developed them through sensory interactions with the environment. This is now known as "empiricism". 

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Mind develops through interaction with environment. Here, in the Superman II movie, a moronic super being is entranced by Newton's cradle.
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In "Some Thoughts Concerning Education" (1693), Locke suggested that mind should be "educated" using three distinct methods: developing a healthy body; forming a virtuous character; and an appropriate academic curriculum. In Chapter V of his Second Treatise, Locke argued that individual ownership of goods and property was justified by the labour exerted to produce those goods and from this premise, Locke developed a labour theory of property, namely that ownership of property is created by the application of labour and is thus a natural right.
To learn more:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Locke
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/An_Essay_Concerning_Human_Understanding
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Some_Thoughts_Concerning_Education
Encyclopedia Brittanica 14th Edition "John Lock"
Korab-Karpowicz, W. Julian, A History of Political Philosophy: From Thucydides to Locke, Global Scholarly Publications, New York, 2010, p. 291


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THE REDEFINING VICTORIAN ERA

In the history of the United Kingdom, the Victorian era was the period of Queen Victoria's reign, from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901. The Edwardian era or Edwardian period of British history covers the brief nine-year reign of King Edward VII, which began with the death of Queen Victoria in 1901 and lasted until his until his death in 1910. During the Edwardian era, there was a great deal brewing beneath the surface, but it was a calm interlude before the storms of the First World War. 

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There was a great deal brewing beneath the surface. Old silent film; bottled milk explodes when opened, into this girls' face.
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Edward VII had style; the Edwardian era has been described as a time when the rich were unashamed of their wealth, and openly flaunted it in the face of significant political shifts amongst the lower classes, who were gaining a voice and had largely been excluded from wielding power in the past.

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To every action there Is always opposed an equal reaction. - Sir Isaac Newton.
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Interest in fairies had a recrudescence during the Victorian and Edwardian eras, which also saw the invention of Santa Claus and the commercialization of Christmas. The Victorian Celtic Revival viewed fairies as part of Ireland's cultural heritage. 

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The Victorian and Edwardian eras saw an increased interest in imaginary creatures, e.g. fairies and goblins. 
This Victorian period postcard contains a poem:  
Halloween Time / Tonight upon your pillow / close your eyes and hide your head / For the fairies and the goblins / Will be hovering round your bed.

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Scholars of the period suggest the renewed fascination was a reaction to greater industrialization and the subsequent loss of folkways. However, for this hypothesis to be valid, it would also need to be applicable to the modern recrudescence begun in the 1970s, and it isn't. (Silver, Carole B. (1999) Strange and Secret Peoples: Fairies and Victorian Consciousness. Oxford University Press. p. 47 ISBN 0-19-512199-6.)

The Victorian and Edwardian increased interest in "fairies" was a contrivance for legitimizing soft porn, to assuage guilt associated with exploiting children.

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William Adolphe Bouguereau (1825-1905), Love on the Look Out (1890).
The Victorian and Edwardian increased interest in "fairies" was a contrivance for legitimizing soft porn. 

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PUTTI PARTICLES

This fascination with the imagined and unseen is a fundamental aspect of human imagination. All mammals dream, and combined with their instincts, use internal processes to bring about willful changes in the physical world. The concept of Putti is a fundamental archetype with us since we began. The Eastern forms had become inwardly directed long before the fall of the Roman empire. Pythagorean and Euclidean geometry are examples of such abstract forms. However, the Western forms had, up until now, been visible, primarily as outward manifestations. By the 19th century, this changed;  as the influences of Western Science became widespread, the concept of Putti acquired inner forms. 

Science is defined as the observation, identification, description, experimental investigation, and theoretical explanation of phenomena. Defined this way, science is passive, and much depends on the ways and means for doing these things, on the methods and mechanics used to get, and record the results.  Before the 19th century, Western science had been both passive and objective, and by this I mean observing, identifying, describing, and investigating material reality, material objects, and things and events perceived with, and experienced through, the physical senses. 

This approach produced incontrovertible discoveries of unseen things with profound effects. It became clear that there were in fact things difficult to perceive directly that nevertheless had profound effects. These discoveries were fundamental, and of immense practical utility, and included, but were not limited to, vaccines, pasteurization, molecular asymmetry, and the disproval of the prevailing notion of spontaneous generation. As an example of practical utility, Louis Pasteur was able to develop a system to prevent the hereditary problems associated with the silk worm infestations. French industry was strongly dependent on silk at the time, and the problems has nearly eradicated their silk industries (they had begun importing silk from Japan). 

The 19th and 20th centuries saw the development of quantum theory.

Putti were indisputably real. 

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Molecular chirality, as demonstrated by Louis Pasteur (1822 - 1895).  
Molecules come in left and right varieties. 
Opposing left and right crystal forms, when separated and each dissolved into separate solutions, rotate polarized light shown through them in opposite directions from one anothe
r.
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Louis Pasteur (1822 - 1895) separated the left and right crystal shapes from each other, dissolved each of them in separate solutions, and shown polarized light through each.  The left crystal shape dissolved in solution rotates polarized light to the left. The right crystal shape dissolved in solution rotates polarized light to the right. When both left and right crystals are combined in equal amounts and dissolved into the same solution, that solution will appear to not rotate the polarized light at all, because the opposing rotations of light through the two opposing forms, when equally mixed in solution, just canceled out each other's effect, and polarized light shining through them appears unaffected.  Molecules come in left and right varieties; they are oriented one way or the other, and as a result, each has different properties, and interacts differently and they're not fungible.Your hands and feet are analogous.

The following personages also characterize this time frame:

Hans Albrecht Bethe (July 2, 1906 – March 6, 2005),  German and American nuclear physicist who made important contributions to astrophysics, quantum electrodynamics and solid-state physics, and won the 1967 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on the theory of stellar nucleosynthesis.

Niels Henrik David Bohr (7 October 1885 – 18 November 1962), Danish physicist and philosopher who made foundational contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum theory, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922. 

Sir Arthur Ignatius Conan Doyle, KStJ, DL (22 May 1859 – 7 July 1930), prolific British writer best known for his characters Sherlock Holmes, Dr. Watson, and Professor Challenger.

Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955), a German-born theoretical physicist who discovered of the law of the photoelectric effect and developed the theory of relativity.

Enrico Fermi (29 September 1901 – 28 November 1954),  Italian-American physicist and  creator of the world's first nuclear reactor, the Chicago Pile-1. He has been called the "architect of the nuclear age" and the "architect of the atomic bomb". One of the very few physicists in history to excel both theoretically and experimentally.

Sigmund Freud (6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939), an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis.

Otto Robert Frisch FRS (1 October 1904 – 22 September 1979),  an Austrian-British physicist. With Lise Meitner he advanced the first theoretical explanation of nuclear fission (coining the term) and first experimentally detected the fission by-products. Later, with his collaborator Rudolf Peierls. he designed the first theoretical mechanism for the detonation of an atomic bomb in 1940.

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Famous photograph of physicists attending the October 1927 Fifth Solvay International Conference on Electrons and Photons.
The Solvay conferences were where the world's most notable physicists met to discuss the newly formulated quantum theory.

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Adolf Hitler  (April 1889 – 30 April 1945) , German politician, leader of the Nazi Party, Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945. As dictator, Hitler initiated World War II in Europe with the invasion of Poland in September 1939, and was central to the Holocaust.

Harry Houdini (March 24, 1874 – October 31, 1926), Austro-Hungarian-born American stage magician and stunt performer, noted for his sensational escape acts.


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This persistent Houdini-esque white cat escapes the cage by unlocking the slide latch.
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Werner Karl Heisenberg (5 December 1901 – 1 February 1976) , a German theoretical physicist and one of the key pioneers of quantum mechanics.

Carl Gustav Jung (26 July 1875 – 6 June 1961), a Swiss psychiatrist and psychoanalyst and the founder of analytical psychology. 

Lise Meitner (7 November 1878 – 27 October 1968) ,an Austrian-Swedish physicist who worked on radioactivity and nuclear physics.

Amalie Emmy Noether (23 March 1882 – 14 April 1935), a German mathematician known for her landmark contributions to abstract algebra and theoretical physics.

Wolfgang Ernst Pauli (25 April 1900 – 15 December 1958),  an Austrian-born Swiss and American theoretical physicist and one of the pioneers of quantum physics. 

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Japanese Maneki Neko lucky gold cats, en masse, all raising their left paws in simultaneous salute.
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Sir Rudolf Ernst Peierls, CBE (5 June 1907 – 19 September 1995), German-born British physicist who played a major role in Tube Alloys, Britain's nuclear programme, and the Manhattan Project. 

Jules Henri Poincaré (29 April 1854 – 17 July 1912) , French mathematician, theoretical physicist, engineer, and philosopher of science; a polymath  in mathematics since he excelled in all fields of that discipline existing during his lifetime.

Erwin Rudolf Josef Alexander Schrödinger (12 August 1887 – 4 January 1961), sometimes written as Erwin Schrodinger or Erwin Schroedinger,  a Nobel Prize-winning Austrian physicist who developed a number of fundamental results in the field of quantum theory, which formed the basis of wave mechanics. 

Arnold Johannes Wilhelm Sommerfeld (5 December 1868 – 26 April 1951),  German theoretical physicist who pioneered developments in atomic and quantum physics, and also educated and mentored a large number of students for the new era of theoretical physics. He served as PhD supervisor for many Nobel Prize winners in physics and chemistry (only J. J. Thomson's record of mentorship is comparable). He introduced the 2nd quantum number (azimuthal quantum number) and the 4th quantum number (spin quantum number), the fine-structure constant, and pioneered X-ray wave theory.

Hermann Klaus Hugo Weyl (9 November 1885 – 8 December 1955), German mathematician, theoretical physicist and philosopher.

John von Neumann (December 28, 1903 – February 8, 1957), a Hungarian-American mathematician, physicist, and computer scientist. 

Eugene Paul "E. P." Wigner (November 17, 1902 – January 1, 1995), a Hungarian-American theoretical physicist, engineer and mathematician.


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CHILD LABOR

With the onset of industrialisation in England in 1760, child exploitation for labor became endemic. Poor British children were deliberately and openly exploited to support the industrial revolution. Employed in the most dangerous jobs, working 24/7 for little or no pay under brutally abusive conditions, they were dying in hoards. 

19th century poor English children were indentured servants, cheap, expendable labor.  Their parents or owners sold them as property, in front of a judge magistrate, as "apprentices" to an adult tradesperson, who used them in their trade, to whom they were bound and dependent for seven years or until they themselves came of adult age. Children were the property of their owners; they were sold, bought, and traded as a cheap renewable commodity resource. This was a government sanctioned procedure. The situation was similar in America.

A "tradesperson" was required to "teach" these children their "trade" and provide minimal care, but in fact, they rarely did as nobody checked. The tradespeople were essentially slave drivers of a crew of children small enough to do work they themselves were too big to do.  Essentially, the children were their "roto-rooters".

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Original photograph of a mother, covering her face, selling her four children, who are sitting together on the porch steps. 
The sign placed in front of them reads "4 Children For Sale Inquire Within".
1929, unidentified photographer. 

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French historian Philippe Ariès, writing in 1960 in his book "Centuries of Childhood", states that "childhood" as conceived today is in fact a contrivance of modern society. His studies of paintings, gravestones, furniture, public records, and school records indicate that prior to the 17th-century, children were often exploited. 

Other scholars point out that the role of children in pre-industrial and indigenous cultures depends on prevailing conditions and infrastructures, e.g. maintaining high birth rates to offset a high infant mortality rate, resulting in poverty for most of the population. 

Regardless of how childhood may or may not have changed, poor children have never had the same opportunities as rich children.  As famous as the Victorian era was for enforcing strict Victorian morals, the era is also known for blatant exploitation of child labor to support the Industrial Revolution. 

A newly indentured child's skin was treated by the master so it would harden. Each evening, until the skin hardened, the master would stand them close to a hot fire and rub in strong brine using a brush. These children got no wages but lived with the master, who fed them. They slept together on the floor or in the cellar, under the coal soot sacks and cloth used during the day to catch the soot. This was known as "sleeping black". They rarely washed either themselves or the clothes in which they lived and worked.  

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From Finland, an "Old Fashioned Santa Claus"; Vanhanajan Joulupukki ei piiskaa saastellyt (Val Krampus).
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In coal mines and chimneys, crawl spaces were tiny. When working inside chimneys, children as young as four years of age routinely traversed hot chimney flues as narrow as 81 square inches (9x9 inches or 23x23 cm).  Chimney flues were as tall as the house and twisted several times. The child would strip, pull a cap down over the face, hold a large flat brush over the head, wedge the body diagonally in the flue, and shimmy upwards, using the back, elbows, and knees, like a caterpillar. The brush was used to dislodge loose soot, which would fall back over the child on its' way down to the bottom. The scraper was used to chip away solid bits; a smooth chimney was a safe chimney. Having reached the top of the flue, the child would then slide rapidly back down, to the floor, and into the soot pile, then they would bag up the soot,  and carry it back to the master.  An apprentice sweep was expected to clear four or five such chimneys a day.  

Soot was more valuable than children; soot could be sold by the bushel for 9d in 1840. 

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Who Killed Cock Robin?
For the entire poem, please see https://publicdomainreview.org/collections/the-death-and-burial-of-cock-robin/

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Often, these flues were still hot and the child could burn to death. They often got wedged inside the narrow flue with their knees jammed against their chins. The harder they struggled, the tighter they became wedged. They could be stuck in this position for hours, until pushed out from below or pulled out with a rope. If their struggling caused a soot fall, they would suffocate. Dead or alive, they had to be removed, and to extricate them, bricks had to be removed from the exterior of the chimney. 

If traversing these narrow flues didn't kill them, time would. Soot is carcinogenic. They slept under it, worked in it, constantly inhaled it, and rarely bathed either themselves or their clothes. Brutally treated, they were growing malnourished children in abysmal conditions. Their bones grew poorly, sores grew infected, joints were inflamed. Frequently they grew blind, deformed, developed tuberculosis, cholera, typhoid, and cancer. Cancer of the scrotum was found only in chimney sweeps; a manifestation of scrotal squamous cell carcinoma, the little sweeps called it "soot wart". Needless to say, these children didn't last long, endured unimaginable brutality while alive, died in droves, and were cheap and easy to replace. 


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MEANWHILE BACK AT THE RANCH

The novelist Charles Dickens had worked at the age of 12 in a blacking factory, with his family in a debtors' prison.  Understanding the situation from his own first hand experience with it, he began exposing the brutalities of child labor, writing horrific descriptions of London street life in his novels. 

By 1760, the divergence between rich children and poor children was increasingly apparent, more well known, and only somewhat embarrassing, at least to a few people in England. 

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"Wishing You A Jolly Christmas." No, 967. 
An upper story couple empty the contents of their chamber pot onto the heads of street musicians giving an unsolicited performance beneath their window. 
The Bremen Town musicians, anyone?

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The literate world was learning through novels that indigent orphans, as domestic servants, chimney sweeps, and mine shaft and factory workers, had brief, brutally painful abusive lives, suffered horrible conditions, disfigurements, tuberculosis, cholera, typhoid, and cancer, all for an occasional sliver of stale bread. It's interesting to note that in 1886, Scottish author Robert Louis Stevenson first published his novel, the Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, depicting,  in a remarkably graphic way, the price for those choosing to live with such moral dichotomy.

Brutal exploitation of children was growing "uncomfortable", harder to ignore, and slowly, it was becoming impossible to justify. Yet it continued; the industrial revolution offered few alternatives for replacing an essential cheap labor force.

Concern for these children increased from 1775 and a great deal of superficial regulation was passed; it had little effect, and was largely ignored. Disasters remained part of the industrial age working class "lifestyle". 

In stark contrast, middle and upper class English children led romanticised sheltered protected lives of innocence and grace, designed to ensure they survived to adulthood and could enter a world of guaranteed opportunities. 

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Harmless but noisy "popper crackers" were given to Victorian well-to-do children's Holiday parties.
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While homosexuality was condemned and forbidden on moral grounds, the market for child pornography became the province of the rich, catered to by painters and other artists.

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Raphael's Cherub by Gustave Moreau, in 1858.
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By 1830, British reformers were campaigning for children's rights to mitigate their exploitation at the workplace. Via reforms in the 1840's, Europe enforced compulsory state schooling of children. 

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A close up of  "The Bunny Rabbit School".
From the anthropomorphic taxidermist Walter Potter (2 July 1835 – 21 May 1918).

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This didn't prevent children from working before or after school, but it did deter businesses from relying on children as their primary exploitable labor source.  In 1840, approximately 20 percent of the children in London had any schooling at all. By 1860, approximately half of the children aged 5 to 15 were in school, including Sunday school. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorian_era) 

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"The Bunny Rabbit School".
From the anthropomorphic taxidermist Walter Potter (2 July 1835 – 21 May 1918).
http://www.taxidermy4cash.com/potter.html

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After this, "Childhood" improved slowly, along with the 19th century's European economy. Most children eventually had some spare time around which they organized sports and activities, and could play with factory-made toys and dolls.

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A Victorian Jack In The Box toy labeled Chas. H. Frey Boots and Shoes.
        
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In 1875, a 12 year old sweeper became stuck in a flue, and died as a result, but uncharacteristically, a Coroner’s Inquest into the matter returned a verdict of manslaughter for the boy's master who was sentenced to six months’ imprisonment with hard labour. Lord Shaftesbury (Anthony Ashley Cooper, 7th Earl of Shaftesbury KG (28 April 1801 – 1 October 1885) a British politician, philanthropist and social reformer, used the incident to press his campaign for abolishing child labor for cleaning chimneys. Writing a series of letters to The Times, he pushed a Bill through Parliament in September 1875 which finally stopped the practice of sending boys up chimneys. Girls, however, still got to go.

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Period photograph of a  master chimney sweep (right) and his apprentice boy, known as a Spazzacamino.
Italy at the end of the 19th century.
Spazzacamino italiano con il suo "bocia" (apprendista). 
Foto anonima della fine del XIX secolo.
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Flue design finally become a regulated industry due to fire containment. 

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Harry Whittier Frees photograph; Firefighting Kitties. Early 20th century.
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New houses were being built so closely together out of wood that fire in one also quickly demolished neighboring properties. 

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Harry Whittier Frees photograph,"Neighbors overcome by smoke". Early 20th century.
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Property losses caused the authorities to regulate the design of flues, and to appoint fire wardens and inspectors. 
 

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Harry Whittier Frees photograph, "The Rescue From The Fire". Early 20th century.
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The exploitation of child labor did not change until some time after flue design was altered, slums that had grown up quickly due to overpopulation were eventually modernized, and people were finding viable alternate energy sources. 

Detailed descriptions of the child labor system and working conditions can be found here:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chimney_sweep
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_childhood


By the late 19th century, our modern Western attitude towards children and childhood had fully emerged. The Victorian middle and upper classes were emphasizing the role of the family and the rights and sanctity of the child. The genre of children's literature firmly established itself as a "Golden Age"of illustrated books specifically tailored to children. Is this "Golden Age" guilt or gilt? Pun intended.

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Christmas Comes But Once A Year; an early 19th-century Christmas celebration, with the servant bringing the Christmas pudding.
Charles Green R.I. (1840–1898), an English watercolorist and illustrator, as was his brother, Henry Towneley Green R.I. (1836–1899). 

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In 1865, in England, Lewis Carroll published Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, a landmark classic hailed as the first "English masterpiece written for children". In 1871, he published the sequel Alice's Adventures Through The Looking Glass.


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The Jabberwock, as illustrated by John Tenniel for Lewis Carroll's Through the Looking Glass, including the poem "Jabberwocky".
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In 1908, Sir Robert Baden-Powell founded the Boy Scouts, whose goal was to provide young boys at least with outdoor activities aimed at developing character through mastering skills, developing values of community, teamwork and citizenship, and encouraging physical health.

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Philippe Ariès Centuries of Childhood (1960)
Howard Chudacoff, Children at Play: An American History (2008)
David Cohen, The Development of Play (2006)
Laura Del Col, West Virginia University, "The Life of the Industrial Worker in Nineteenth-Century England". 
Vivian C. Fox, "Poor Children's Rights in Early Modern England," Journal of Psychohistory, Jan 1996, Vol. 23 Issue 3, pp 286–306

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SANTA COMES TO TOWN 


By the early 19th century,  putti, cupids, angels, nymphs, sprites, pixies, brownies, elves, gnomes, goblins, gremlins, Leprechauns, Lutins, genii, little green men, and  Púcas were coming out of the woodwork, along with other magical beings around the world. 


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Brownies All Over The House, 1883. 
Palmer Cox (April 28, 1840 – July 24, 1924) Canadian illustrator and author.

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When these tiny creatures did not happen to have wings, they had magic powers instead, or were otherwise gifted in some extraordinary way. This interpretation remains to this day.

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Walt Disney Productions, Silly symphony, Santa's Workshop. 
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When not serving Aphrodite Venus, or some modernized version of her, they were busy serving humans, e.g. helping Santa.

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Baby Santas are Cherubs on this Vintage Christmas card.
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A period of drastic change was occurring all over Europe and American, in every area of human endeavor and expression. 

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Things were changing; a drawing of an atomic explosion. 
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From hot air balloons to airplanes, from phenakistoscopes to zoetropes to motion pictures, from Charles Dickens's 1843 novel A Christmas Carol to Pinocchio by Carlo Collodi.

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In this cockeyed frame, an antique colored engraving of a  Montgolfière balloon ascends and continues right through the frame.
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The creation of the genre of childhood and children's literature had begun; changes included transatlantic cables to home telephones, and the introduction of sulfa drugs, penicillin, encryption, cigarettes, and propaganda.

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Choo Choo Train tiny steam engine.
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The effects of all this fundamental change is more readily seen using a time line format.
 

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Walt Disney Productions, Silly symphony, Santa's Reindeer. 
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Given the predilection of exploiting children for labor, it's no coincidence that Santa comes down chimneys carrying a sack, delivering toys instead of soot.

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Santa entering a chimney on the rooftop.
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Santa was coming, ready or not.


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Santa's incoming ship rams the dock.
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Next issue: Santa and the putti as reindeer and helpers sail into the 20th century.

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I sign our magazine articles "See Into The Invisible". Thanks for reading.
Best Wishes,
Debra Spencer

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171216 MAGAZINE Suit Yourself™ International Magazine #46 Putti Party Part 3. All Content is © Debra Spencer, Suit Yourself International. Technical Library FAQ Index ISSN
2474-820X. All Rights Reserved

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All Content is © Debra Spencer, Suit Yourself™ International. Technical Library FAQ Index ISSN 2474-820X. All Rights Reserved. Please do not reproduce in part or in whole without express written consent. Thank you.
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All Content is ©2019 Debra Spencer, Appanage™at www.suityourself.international Suit Yourself ™ International, 120 Pendleton Point, Islesboro Island, Maine, 04848, USA 44n31 68w91 Technical Library FAQ Index ISSN 2474-820X. All Rights Reserved. Please do not reproduce in part or in whole without express written consent. Thank you.

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All Content is ©2019 Debra Spencer, Appanage™at www.suityourself.international Suit Yourself ™ International, 120 Pendleton Point, Islesboro Island, Maine, 04848, USA 44n31 68w91 Technical Library FAQ Index ISSN 2474-820X. All Rights Reserved. Please do not reproduce in part or in whole without express written consent. Thank you.
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