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Suit Yourself™ International Magazine #47: Putti Party Part 4

  

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Suit Yourself™ International Magazine  #47: Putti Party

Part Four

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This is the 47th in our articles series and I hope this information is helpful.

All previous articles in the series can be found in our Library:
https://suityourself.international/libraryindex.html
and in the Magazine Archives:
https://suityourself.international/appanage/index.php?_a=newsletter
If you are experiencing problems viewing this newsletter in email, please use one of these links.

Upon request, reprint permission and an addendum of substantiating resources are available for all magazine articles. When requesting reprint permission or addenda, please include the issue date and full issue title. All magazine articles are copyright © Debra Spencer, Suit Yourself ™ International. All rights reserved. ISSN 2474-820X.
 

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PUTTI PARTY

Part Four

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This concludes my series on Putti through the ages. Here, I look at western culture from the putti point of view as putti emerge into the 20th century. Other articles in this series cover Prehistoric times to the Settecento (18th century), then the 18th and 19th centuries. Please also read Part One for a Putti overview. Like all of us, putti come in many shapes, sizes, and variations; what's important is what they represent, and how they are representing it.

We represent Putti at any given time in much the same way as we are being treated by others at that time; taking a moment to reflect on Putti history is thus both illuminating and of great practical utility.

Putti are fundamental metaphors.

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Agostino Carracci, Whispering Angels.

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PUTTI MORPH INTO SANTA CLAUS & HIS HELPERS

Just as putti come in a variety of forms through the ages, the character we now call Santa Claus emerged by combining many different mythic figures from cultures around the world, including but not limited to Santaklaus, Father Christmas, Saint Nicolas, the Scandinavian JulTomte, JuleNisse, and trolls, the Joulupukki Yule Goat of Finland, and the Nordic or Dvergar dwarves.  Each of these has its' own history. Some are diminutive figures, some are shape changers, some are human-sized beings. The Nordic dwarves, for example, were originally human-sized and not described as "little beings" until the 13th century, when they began to appear in legendary sagas, often as a humorous element.

"Dwarf" in the Romance languages represents the same thing as that conveyed by the Greek work "nanos" meaning a dwarf, and Latin "nanus", an adjective meaning"very small or short for its' species". ( https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enano_(mitolog%C3%ADa) )

In Spanish, these beings are called Enano Diose, Dwarf Gods, and in French, Dieux Nains. Here is where we find their link to Eros - Cupid.  The online etymological dictionary tells us Enano, the Spanish word, is derived from the verb enamo, enamor: "c. 1300, from Old French enamorer "to fall in love with; to inspire love" (12c., Modern French enamourer), from en- "in, into" (see en- (1)) + amor "love," from amare "to love" (see Amy). Since its earliest appearance in English, it has been used chiefly in the past participle (enamored) and with of or with. An equivalent formation to Provençal, Spanish, Portuguese enamorar, Italian innamorare." (https://www.etymonline.com/search?q=enano)

The online etymological dictionary tells us about the word "dwarf" (https://www.etymonline.com/word/dwarf):
Old English dweorh, dweorg (West Saxon), duerg (Mercian), "very short human being," from Proto-Germanic *dweraz (source also of Old Frisian dwerch, Old Saxon dwerg, Old High German twerg, German Zwerg, Old Norse dvergr), perhaps from PIE *dhwergwhos "something tiny," but with no established cognates outside Germanic. The mythological sense is 1770, from German (it seems never to have developed independently in English).


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Montage of 4 images:
A terracotta figurine of a grotesque wearing a mistletoe wreath, made in Myrina (Eólida), ca. 2nd-century BC. National Archaeological Museum, Athens, Greece. 
The Egyptian God Bes; terracotta figurine, Archelogical Museum of Catalunya. Bes was an Egyptian God adopted by the Phoenicians, who spread it throughout the Mediterranean.
An Ancient Greek terracotta figurine, 5th century BC.
A terracotta figurine of a grotesque wearing a mistletoe wreath, made in Myrina (Eólida), ca. 2nd-century BC. National Archaeological Museum, Athens, Greece. 
An 1895 illustration of two Völuspá Dwarves by Frølich.

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In 1812, the Brothers Grimm (Frères Grimm) published the German fairy tale "Snow White" as  Schneewittchen Tale 53, in their 1812 first edition of the "Grimms' Fairy Tales" collection. 

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Kinder und Hausmarchen, Bruder Grimm.
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These were grim tales indeed, but so was childhood without antibiotics and vaccines, and the indoctrination provided by these tales was intended to offset, to some extent, the sudden shocks inherent in real life, at least for the literate few who could read the stories.

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Angel with bow and arrow, by William-Adolphe Bouguereau (1825-1905).
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In 1821, the book "A New-year's present, to the little ones from five to twelve" was published in New York. It contained an anonymous poem describing "Santeclaus" on a reindeer sleigh, bringing presents to children ("Old Santeclaus with Much Delight"). Concurrently, Les Contes des Fées Offerts à Bébé was published in France by Théodore Lefévre & Cie Émile Guérin, Editeur.  The cover reflects very long standing European Holiday customs and well known stories that offer support through traditional values, family, and community.

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Les Contes des Fées offers a Bébé.
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The young child on the cover, wearing blue garb, has curly hair, a shoulder cape, frilled lace cuffs with banding matching the shoulder cape, a low leather belt, blue stockings, and black leather tongued loafers. The sex is deliberately indeterminable. 


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Zwarte Pieten, St. Nicholas’ controversial companion in Belgium and the Netherlands.
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In the background stands Saint Nicholas's companion, Black Peter, Zwarte Pieten, a venerable tradition from Belgium and the Netherlands, a representative of the inherent polarity in all of the energy of life, in other words, Yin and Yang. He is holding a large book, as he usually does, as in most of his representations; this is Saint Nicholas's  bible. Here, however, the connotation is given that this book of tales you are bringing to your child offers something similar to Saint Nicholas's bible brought to you by Zwarte Pieten! He wears a white top hat with a blue band, and a blue weskit; his jacket's sleeves have a blue band at the cuff.  

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Collection Nelson - Charles Perrault. 
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The other pair represented here is a Puss In Boots whose boots have star spurs, and who is wearing a draped blue sash tied with a bow at the shoulder. Puss is walking arm in arm with a little Girl in a Red Cap (she is Red Riding Hood), wearing a red dress, and red tights. She has, tucked under one arm, a panier, a hand woven reed basket,  a round plate. In her other hand, she holds a covered metal milk (food) container.

    
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Chat botté et souris.

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It is at this time that we find the beginnings of the commercialization of Christmas, deliberately orchestrated.

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May Christmas bring you everything that you are wishing for
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Christmas as a commercial powerhouse was just beginning.

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A 1910 Christmas card showing Santa Claus smoking a cigar and drinking, with dollar signed money bags falling out of his sack.
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In 1823, St Nicholas himself is called an elf in the poem "A Visit from St. Nicholas" (more commonly known as "The Night Before Christmas" and "'Twas the Night Before Christmas" from the poem's first line).  A copy is available online here: http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/17135

St. Nick is described as being "chubby and plump, a right jolly old elf" with "a little round belly", that "shook when he laughed like a bowlful of jelly", in spite of which the "miniature sleigh" and "tiny reindeer" still indicate that he is physically diminutive. The reindeer were also named: Dasher, Dancer, Prancer, Vixen, Comet, Cupid, Dunder and Blixem (Dunder and Blixem came from the old Dutch words for thunder and lightning, which were later changed to the more German sounding Donner and Blitzen).

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Christmas Joys Poem:
There's nothing Santa more enjoys
Than making toys for girls and boys;
And in his way he's wondrous wise
For he knows just what'll please your eyes.
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By the mid-19th century, inventions such as Joseph Plateau's phenakistoscope and the later zoetrope demonstrated continuity of motion from individual images in a moving sequence. 

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Puppets, France; projections from glass slides.
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In the late 1870s, Eadweard Muybridge created the first animated image sequences photographed in real-time. 

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Eadweard Muybridge's Sometimes Sallie Gardner at a Gallop, his animation of a race horse, from 1878, cited as the earliest film. 
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An animated image of a horse, made using eight pictures derived from Eadweard Muybridge's animation of a race horse. 
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By the end of the 1880s, several minutes of action could be captured and stored on a single compact reel of film. By the 1890's, public screenings of films were held where were admission was charged.

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Please applaud with the hands only.

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SANTA MEDIA

Nowhere is the inherent persuasive power of media more obvious than in the international proliferation of one nocturnal gift giving Santa Claus.

By 1845 'Kris Kringle' was a common variant of Santa Claus and Saint Nicolas in parts of the U.S.A.

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A Christmas Santa hold up.
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Victorian Christmases had developed into family festivals centred mainly on children. Father Christmas also began to be associated with giving gifts, and this concept began shaping rituals associated with gift giving.

( https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Father_Christmas: Pimlott, JAR (1978). An Englishman's Christmas: A Social History. Hassocks, Suffolk: The Harvester Press. p. 85. ISBN 0-391-00900-1.)


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Harry Whittier Frees photograph on a Christmas card:  Mother Cat prepares for Christmas; All My Dreams Come True.
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The figure of Santa Claus had originated in the USA, drawing (pun intended) at least partly upon Dutch St Nicolas traditions. 

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Merry Old Santa Claus by Thomas Nast, September 27, 1840 – December 7, 1902) , German-born American caricaturist and editorial cartoonist.
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As the USA-inspired customs became popular in England, Father Christmas took on Santa's attributes. 

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Santa Claus and little "elf" angels.
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As late as the 1890s, Father Christmas and Santa Claus were different characters with Father Christmas appearing without any new American features, however their differences were fading.

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Old Christmas riding a Yule goat, by Robert Seymour, 1836. 

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This Old Christmas, shown riding a yule goat, drawn by Robert Seymour in 1836, derives from the tradition in Finland of the Joulupukki. 
This is an illustration from "The Book Of Christmas" by Thomas Kibble Hervey.  
The original illustration is entitled 'Old Christmas' .
It's accompanied by a verse: "In furry pall yclad, / His brows enwreathed with holly never sere, / Old Christmas comes to close the wained year: Bampfylde".
A complete facsimile of the 1888 American version is available online:  https://archive.org/details/bookofchristmas00herviala
Scans of the illustrations: https://standrewsrarebooks.wordpress.com/2012/12/23/52-weeks-of-inspiring-illustrations-week-27-robert-seymours-book-of-christmas-illustrations-1836/


The Yule Goat is a venerable old Scandinavian and Northern European Yule and Christmas symbol and tradition, whose roots lie in ancient Pagan festivals. 

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Joulupukki Yule Goat to boy: I have come to greet you. 1885, Victorian era Yule Tide greeting card.
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In Scandinavia during the 19th century, the Yule goat's role shifted towards being the giver of Christmas gifts. One of the men in the family would dress up as the Yule goat. By the 1850s, however, the goat-man transformation tradition faded, and the role of gift giver was assumed by the JulTomte (Father Christmas or Santa Claus) or JuleNisse. 

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A nisse on a Christmas Card; Glaedelig Jul, 1885. 
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The character is still called the Joulupukki (Yule goat) in Finland.  "Joulupukki" literally means "Christmas goat" or "Yule Goat" in Finnish. "Pukki" comes from the Teutonic root bock, a cognate of the English "buck", and means "billy-goat". The American concept eventually took hold in Finland and conflated this fine old traditional Scandinavian figure with Santa Claus. ( https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joulupukki )


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Pre-1946 Christmas card, God Jul by Jenny Nyström (1854 - 1946).
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In 1865, as mentioned above, in England, Lewis Carroll published Alice's Adventures in Wonderland.

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John Tenniel illustration from Alice's Adventures Through The Looking Glass.
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In 1871, Lewis Carroll published the sequel, Alice's Adventures Through The Looking Glass (And What She Found There).

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John Tenniel illustration from Alice's Adventures Through The Looking Glass.
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From the 1870s onwards, Christmas shopping evolved into a specific seasonal activity, an essential part of the English Christmas.  

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Harry Whittier Frees photograph; Mother Cat shopping for Christmas while wearing a muffler and knit hat.
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The tradition of a nocturnal Santa Claus wasn't adopted by ordinary people until after Lord Shaftesbury, in September 1875, pushed through Parliament the child labor protection Bill finally halting the practice of sending boys inside chimneys.  

As previously stated, given the predilection of exploiting children for labor, it's no coincidence that Santa eventually comes down chimneys carrying a sack, delivering toys instead of soot.

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Santa entering a chimney on a roof top.
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By the 1880s, the American myth was firmly established in the popular English imagination, with the nocturnal visitor sometimes Santa Claus and sometimes Father Christmas (often complete with a hooded robe). Any residual distinctions between Father Christmas and Santa Claus largely faded away in the early years of the new century.
    


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Santa checking his list twice, from the left.

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It took many years for authors and illustrators to agree that Father Christmas's costume should be portrayed as red, such as worn by Saint Nicholas.

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Santa checking his list twice, from the right
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Today, all the various versions are synonymous, for all intents and purposes. Approximately  150 years after Santa's arrival in England, some people prefer 'St. Nick' or 'Father Christmas' over 'Santa' (Roud, Steve (2006). The English Year. London: Penguin Books. pp. 385–387. ISBN 978-0-140-51554-1.)

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Walt Disney Productions, Silly symphony, Santa's Workshop. The toys enter Santa's repaired bag.
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Modern dictionaries equate the Father Christmas with Santa Claus. See "Father Christmas" in the Collins English Dictionary and the Chambers 21st Century Dictionary. Chambers. 
 

According to Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable (19th edn, 2012), Father Christmas is considered "a British rather than a US name for Santa Claus, associating him specifically with Christmas. The name carries a somewhat superior social cachet and is thus preferred by certain advertisers." (Dent, Susie (forward) (2012). Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable (19th edn). London: Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd. p. 483. ISBN 978-0550107640.)

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Walt Disney Productions, Silly symphony, Santa's Workshop.  L'atelier des lutins du Père Noël.
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Father Christmas appeared in many 20th century English-language works of fiction, including J. R. R. Tolkien's Father Christmas Letters, a series of private letters to his children written between 1920 and 1942 and first published in 1976.

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Father Christmas Packing, 1931, as imagined in a private letter by JRR Tolkien, published in 1976.
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Hutton, Ronald (1996). The Stations of the Sun. Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 117–118. ISBN 0-19-820570-8.) 
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Father_Christmas

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BOUGUEREAU'S SOFT PORN FAIRIES


By the mid-19th century, Putti were sexualized, most notably by William-Adolphe Bouguereau, the first soft porn realist painter. Myths all but disappear from the representations; only the soft porn connotations are maintained amongst a few cursory symbols.  These images are far more than a world away from our earlier putti innocenti, innocent genderless flying neonatal babies. These are not innocent any more than their buyers are.

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Cupido bagnato (1891) William-Adolphe Bouguereau.
       https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Cupidon.jpg

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Bouguereau wasn't the first artist to "sell out", but his attitude and approach were typical for his era. He established an acceptable way of catering to certain base tastes by presenting his subjects under the auspices of more highly elevated symbols. To appeal to the wealthy art patrons of his era, Bouguereau "reinterpreted" Classical subjects  and mythological themes, pagan and Christian, primarily using the naked female form in an idealized world, bringing to life contemporary naked women as goddesses, nymphs, bathers, shepherdesses, and madonnas.  Bouguereau confessed in 1891 that the direction of his mature work was largely a response to the marketplace: "What do you expect, you have to follow public taste, and the public only buys what it likes. That's why, with time, I changed my way of painting."
 

Bouguereau’s fame was widespread; it crossed the pond to England by the 1860s. Three of his paintings were shown at the 1863 Salon and "Holy Family" sold to Napoleon III, who presented it to his wife the Empress Eugénie, who hung it in her Tuileries apartment. Bouguereau submitted a shocking nude, Bather (1864), to an exhibition in Ghent, Belgium and it was a spectacular success; the museum purchased it at great expense. In May 1876, at the behest of William III of the Netherlands, Bouguereau traveled to the palace of Loo to visit with the King. In May 1878, the Paris Universal Exhibition opened to showcase French work; Bouguereau borrowed twelve of his own paintings from their owners to show there, including a new work The Nymphaeum.
 

The world has never looked at Putti in the same way since.

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Giovanetta che si difende da Cupido (1880). 
A Young Girl Defending Herself Against Eros (1880).
William-Adolphe Bouguereau (1825-1905).

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William-Adolphe Bouguereau (b. November 30, 1825 - d. August 19, 1905 (aged 79), La Rochelle, France.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William-Adolphe_Bouguereau
"Marketing Modernism in Fin-de-siècle Europe"
Bartoli, Damien and Ross, Frederick C. William Bouguereau: His Life and Works, 2010
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William-Adolphe_Bouguereau
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/William-Adolphe_Bouguereau
https://www.wikiart.org/en/william-adolphe-bouguereau
https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/William-Adolphe_Bouguereau

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JAPAN BURSTS UPON THE WORLD

At the beginning of the 19th century, Japan existed as it had for centuries. A Tokugawa Shogun ruled through a central bureaucracy tied by feudal alliances to local daimyos and samurai. Taxes were based on agriculture and the samurai were sustained by stipends paid to them by the shogunate.  A strict set of policies were enacted by the Tokugawa shogunate under Tokugawa Iemitsu from 1633–39. While not completely isolating Japan from the rest of the world, these severe restrictions stifled the country and kept it secluded. For over 220 years, Japanese natives were kept from leaving Japan. Trade and foreign relations were severely limited; nearly all foreigners were barred from entering the country.

During this period of self-imposed isolation (Sakoku), Japan acquired a tremendous amount of scientific knowledge from the West in the 18th and 19th centuries through what they call Rangaku, literally "Dutch Learning"  The Dutch traders were the only European foreigners tolerated in Japan from 1639 till 1853. Carefully watched, strictly controlled, and limited to one annual homage to the Shogun in Edo, they managed to "smuggle" industrial and scientific knowledge into Japan on an ongoing basis.

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Telescope, Iwahashi Zenbei's Sunspot Drawings in 1793 in Japan 
( https://arxiv.org/pdf/1711.08143.pdf )

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In 1853, the American Black Ships commanded by Matthew Perry forced the opening of Japan to American (and, by extension, Western) trade. Perry threatened to bombard the Japanese capital if they did not open up to American trade.  Japan opened itself to foreign influence and, as in China, westerners residing in Japan were not subject to Japanese laws, however there was a backlash against foreigners in the 1860s.  The samurai, using surplus weapons from America’s Civil War, which had just ended, defeated the shogun’s army. This delivered a clear message about the supremacy of western military technology. The Meiji seized control in 1871 and began a period of reforms called the Meiji Restoration.  Feudalism was abolished, political power was centralized, and the samurai were sent abroad to learn about western science and technology and then abolished as a class. Many samurai adopted the Western political and business practices they were learning and formed a new business class utilizing industrialization. An important example is Iwasaki Yataro founder of the Mitsubishi company. 

Following Commodore Perry’s visit, the Netherlands continued to have a key role in transmitting Western know-how to Japan for some time.  The Nagasaki Naval Yule Goat to boying Center was established in 1855  at the entrance of the Dutch trading post of Dejima, and from 1855 to 1859, education was directed by Dutch naval officers, before the transfer of the school to Tsukiji in Tokyo, where English educators became prominent.
          
The development of France-Japan relations in the 19th century coincided with Japan's opening to the Western world; the two countries became very important partners, particularly  involving silk. Japan has its' own pavilion at  the 1867 World Fair in Paris, arousing considerable interest in Japan, and connecting visitors with Japanese art and techniques.

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JAPAN IMPRESSES THE FRENCH IMPRESSIONISTS

The Impressionists movement, begun in France in the 1860's, coincided with Japan's opening to the Western world.  Japanese ukiyo-e art prints were a major influence, their archetypal themes, angles, and for the West, unconventional compositions, were quickly adopted and became characteristic of Impressionism. Monet's Jardin à Sainte-Adresse, 1867, is one example;  bold blocks of colour and composition on a strong diagonal slant clearly show the influence.
 

Edgar Degas, an avid photographer and a Japanese print collector, introduced the Japanese asymmetrical composition in The Dance Class (La classe de danse) of 1874 . Dancers, candidly caught in various awkward poses, leave an expanse of empty floor space in the lower right quadrant. He also captured his dancers this way in sculpture, such as the Little Dancer of Fourteen Years.
 

For more information, see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Impressionism  and Ives, The Great Wave, publ. The Metropolitan Museum of Art.

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The influence of the Japanese woodblock print is clearly seen in this illustration by Kay Nielsen for the tale of The Twelve Dancing Princesses.

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In the July 1890 edition of Lippincott's Monthly Magazine, Oscar Wilde,  the Irish playwright and poet,  published the first version of his novel "The Picture of Dorian Gray" as the lead story. Victorian society was outraged by Dorian Gray; it was a novel of vice hidden beneath art, and finally Wilde had found a way to critique society on its' own terms. 

 In 1863, Oscar Wilde published his mythic play Salome, in French with illustrations by Aubrey Beardsley; it was published jointly in Paris and London, but not performed until 1896 in Paris. Aubrey Vincent Beardsley (21 August 1872 – 16 March 1898) was an English illustrator and author. His drawings in black ink, influenced by the style of Japanese woodcuts, emphasized the grotesque, the decadent, and the erotic. In 1895, Oscar Wilde published another satirical play,  The Importance of Being Earnest.
(Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde (16 October 1854 – 30 November 1900)).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oscar_Wilde

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Jokanaan and Salome. Illustration by Aubrey Beardsley for the 1893 edition of Salome.
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Japan was still largely unknown and very exotic to Westerners in the late 19th century. In 1904, Lafcadio Hearn (Koizumi Yakumo), an American writer who had been teaching English in Japan,  published his last book,  "Kwaidan: Stories and Studies of Strange Things" introducing Western culture to the Japanese meanings for flying beings. Butterflies are personifications of the human soul. Mosquitoes are karmic reincarnation of jealous or greedy people in the form of Jiki-ketsu-gaki or "blood-drinking pretas". Ants are humankind's superior in terms of chastity, ethics, social structure, longevity and evolution.

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Lafcadio Hearn (Koizumi Yakumo) shown with his wife, Koizumi Setsu. Due to damage to his left eye eye, he preferred to be photographed with a right facing profile. 
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COMMERCIAL ANGELS

Angels we have heard on high tell us to go out and buy. -- Tom Lehrer, The Christmas Song

Once "introduced" to America, the commercialization of Putti, angels, Leprechauns, Brownies, "Little People" and associated imaginary creatures began almost immediately. Alongside life-changing technological advances, Putti entered the American culture and proliferated as franchised symbols, introduced in stories, cartoons, "moving pictures", toys, and as all sorts of various objects. 

 By 1879, the Canadian illustrator and author Palmer Cox (April 28, 1840 – July 24, 1924) had introduced the world to Brownies. Their earliest print appearances were in 1879, and their final forms by the February 1881 issue of Wide Awake magazine. Their first "story", The Brownies' Ride, appeared in the February 1883 issue of the children's periodical St. Nicholas Magazine. A compilation (The Brownies, Their Book) was published in 1887, followed by 16 books in the series through 1918.

The story of the wooden puppet, Pinocchio by Carlo Collodi, was first serialized in 1881 and 1882, as La Storia di Un Burattino, and published in February 1883 as a book for children, Le Avventure di Pinocchio.

October 28, 1886, the Statue of Liberty, a colossal neoclassical copper sculpture, a gift from the people of France to the people of the United States, was dedicated, on Liberty Island in New York Harbor in New York City, in the United States. It was designed by French sculptor Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi and built by Gustave Eiffel, as in Eiffel Tower.

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USA Statue of Liberty.
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In the early 1900s, the Teddy Bear was developed apparently simultaneously by toymakers Morris Michtom in the U.S. and Richard Steiff in Germany, and then named after President Theodore "Teddy" Roosevelt (the 25th US Vice President from March to September 1901, and the 26th President from 1901 to 1909).

The "Teddy Bear" entered the culture as a Presidential Putti; it has become, and remains, a ubiquitous symbol of childhood and children, and can be found today decorated in youth versions of virtually every known occupational uniform.


In 1902, Georges Méliès  (1861–1938) introduced the first narrative science fiction film, Le Voyage dans la Lune (A Voyage to the Moon) based on the works of Jules Gabriel Verne ( 8 February 1828 – 24 March 1905), the beloved French novelist, poet, and playwright.

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Georges Méliès, Le Voyage dans la Lune (A Voyage to the Moon).
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In 1903, the Wright brothers, Orville (August 19, 1871 – January 30, 1948) and Wilbur (April 16, 1867 – May 30, 1912), made the first controlled, sustained flight of a powered, heavier-than-air aircraft on December 17, 1903, four miles south of Kitty Hawk, North Carolina.

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The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show by J. Ward;  Mr. Peabody and Sherman meet Orville and Wilber Wright.

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1903:  After producing and selling the Model A in 1903, Ford Motor Company's Model T became, in 1908,  the first mass-produced automobile.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_automobile

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Henry Ford.
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In 1908, as noted above, in England, Sir Robert Baden-Powell founded the Boy Scouts.

Beginning in 1911, Winsor McCay introduced animated films with mythological and imaginary creatures: Little Nemo (1911), How a Mosquito Operates (1912), and Gertie the Dinosaur (1914).

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Gertie The Dinosaur (1914).
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World War I (WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. 

In the early 1900's, the art of persuasion and indoctrination of the masses developed into a formal curriculum under the tutelage of Edward Bernays. Edward Bernays  (November 22, 1891 − March 9, 1995) was an Austrian-American pioneer in the field of public relations and propaganda, referred to in his obituary as "the father of public relations". One might also add propaganda, persuasion, and mind and media management. In 1923 he published his first book, "Crystallizing Public Opinion", still considered to be the "bible" of the business of persuasion. 

The son of Ely Bernays and Anna Freud Bernays, Edward Bernays was a "double nephew" of Viennese psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud—by virtue of his mother, Freud’s sister, and of his father’s sister, Martha Bernays Freud, who married Sigmund. In 1920, Bernays opened his public relations business in New York after working for the US Committee on Public Information during World War I.  Hidden Curriculum persists, and is ubiquitous. See also http://edglossary.org/hidden-curriculum/

By 1930, silent films had been replaced by "Talkies".  The cartoon character Betty Boop, saying "Boop Boop D'Boop",  first appeared August 9, 1930, in the cartoon Dizzy Dishes, the seventh installment in Fleischer's Talkartoon series. Betty Boop and "cupie dolls" exaggerated Putti's neotenous features. Exaggerating neoteny became a hallmark of commercial products marketed to children and families as entertainment, and remains so to this day.

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A Christmas Betty Boop.
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In 1937, Walt Disney Productions released a fully animated film,  Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, based on the Brothers Grimm (Frères Grimm) retelling of the German tale Schneewittchen, in their 1812 first edition of the "Grimms' Fairy Tales" collection. 

In 1937, on 21 September, J. R. R. Tolkien publishes The Hobbit, or There and Back Again. 

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a second global war that lasted officially from 1939 to 1945; related conflicts began earlier.

1940 Walt Disney Productions released their fully animated film, Pinocchio, based the 1883 story of the wooden puppet, Pinocchio by Carlo Collodi.

1940 Walt Disney Productions released Fantasia, a film of animations to classical music. World War II cut off distribution to the European market, hampering the film's ability to make a profit. Fantasia is a truly remarkable artistic creation, in any age. 

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Walt Disney Productions' Fantasia; Artemis Diana aims her bow.
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In 1941, Walt Disney Productions released Dumbo, their animated story of an elephant capable of flying by using his ears as wings.

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1941 Walt Disney Productions, Dumbo, as a baby putto sneezing.
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In 1943, cartoonist Crockett Johnson introduced the characters Barnaby and his guardian angel Mr. O'Malley, who smokes a cigar and cries out "Cushlamochree" (from the Irish "cuisle mo chroí", "beat of my heart") whenever his meddling turns problematic.
    


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Book cover jacket, Barnaby Crockett Johnson, 1943.
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In 1953, Walt Disney Productions released the animated film Peter Pan, about an eternal youth who never grows up. Peter Pan is based on the character created by Scottish novelist and playwright J. M. Barrie., who had based the character on his older brother, David, who died in an ice skating accident the day before his 14th birthday. Barrie had never described Peter's appearance in detail, even in his novel, leaving it to the reader's imagination, and leaving details of the interpretation up to anyone adapting the character. While the character Peter appears in several Barrie novels, Barrie described him only as a beautiful boy with a beautiful smile, "clad in skeleton leaves and the juices that flow from trees", and that he still had all his baby teeth.

 In the novels and plays, Peter never ages, he is able to fly, to sense approaching danger, rides a goat, plays pipes, and can imagine things into existence. Taking their lead from the popular paintings of William-Adolphe Bouguereau, numerous stage productions of the early 1900's feature character on stage played by petite adult woman wearing then scandalous figure-conforming tights and leotards. A costume worn by Pauline Chase, who played the role from 1906 to 1913, is displayed in the Museum of London.

1954 - 1955  J. R. R. Tolkien publishes The Lord of the Rings in three volumes over the course of a year, from 29 July 1954 to 20 October 1955

In 1963, Walt Disney Productions released the animated film The Sword in the Stone, based on the 1938 novel by T. H. White, later republished in 1958 as the first book of  the tetralogy The Once and Future King, T. H. White's source was  Le Morte D'Arthur by Sir Thomas Mallory, first published in 1485 by William Caxton. Mallory's epic was a reworking of French and English stories about the legendary King Arthur, Guinevere, Lancelot, Merlin, and the Knights of the Round Table. 

On November 22, 1963, while riding in a presidential motorcade in Dallas, Texas, John F. Kennedy, the 35th President of the United States, was assassinated, fatally shot by former U.S. Marine Lee Harvey Oswald. 

The Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Pub.L. 88–352, 78 Stat. 241, enacted July 2, 1964) was a landmark civil rights and US labor law in the United States  outlawing discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin. It prohibited unequal application of voter registration requirements, racial segregation in schools, employment, and public accommodations.

In 1969, Apollo 11 became the spaceflight that landed the first two humans on the Moon. Mission commander Neil Armstrong and pilot Buzz Aldrin, both American, landed the lunar module Eagle on the moon. Armstrong was the first to step onto the lunar surface; Aldrin joined him about 20 minutes later. The image of the Earth as a tiny blue marble floating in space as seen from the lunar surface becomes an icon to the world. 

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Apollo 11 Buzz Aldrin's lunar surface bootprint while investigating the lunar regolith, July 20, 1969.
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By the late 1960s, in the US, an all-pervasive general disillusionment developed, most obvious in the breakdown of traditional family roles and the concepts of "love". Divorce rates rose, and relationships were not enduring in the majority of the general population; the traditional structures were disassembling, with nothing replacing them to provide structure, security, or support. The general population was questioning their parent's belief, that progress must lead to a better quality of life. They were instead recognizing that progress provided opportunities for improvement as well as for disaster and for new kinds of cruelty and suffering.

Putti and angels became increasingly "childlike" in their representation, reflective of superficial sentimentality. Cheap paper Valentines are produced for the public, at the cost of literally a dime a dozen, flooding the market with naughty innuendo.

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Walt Disney Productions, Fantasia, frost.
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By 2017, global uncertainty, and in the USA, the demise of the middle class and severe restrictions to upward mobility, plus recession, all contribute to the fall of exploiting the Holidays via commercialism. Retail is failing, having lost its' "life style" advertising allure.  Advertising focuses on the top five percent of the population who can afford the lifestyles it promotes. Publicity has outrun its' own headlights; the average person in America can no longer afford false "lifestyles" or annual new appliances, computers, and mates.  Most can only drive as fast as their headlights allow, if they can afford to drive at all, and poor and rich alike increasingly don't give a damn.

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Le Repos du Père Noël sur son route.
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AND NOW FOR SOMETHING COMPLETELY DIFFERENT: NORAD TRACKS SANTA


In 1955, NORAD (North American Aerospace Defense Command) began tracking Santa's sleigh on Christmas Eve; it has since become an annual tradition. They have tracked Santa Claus's progress from the North Pole every Christmas Eve for the past 62 years. The information below is reprinted from their site, and is correct as of the date of this publication.

Here's the story from the web site (https://www.noradsanta.org/#section-village):
"For 60 years, NORAD and its predecessor, the Continental Air Defense Command (CONAD) have tracked Santa’s flight. The tradition began in 1955 after a Colorado Springs-based Sears Roebuck & Co. advertisement misprinted the telephone number for children to call Santa. Instead of reaching Santa, the phone number put kids through to the CONAD Commander-in-Chief's operations "hotline." The Director of Operations at the time, Colonel Harry Shoup, had his staff check the radar for indications of Santa making his way south from the North Pole."

"Children who called were given updates on Santa's location, and a tradition was born. In 1958, the governments of Canada and the United States created a bi-national air defense command for North America called the North American Aerospace Defense Command, also known as NORAD, which then took on the tradition of tracking Santa. Since that time, NORAD men, women, family and friends have selflessly volunteered their time to personally respond to phone calls and emails from children all around the world. In addition, we now track Santa using the internet. Millions of people who want to know Santa's whereabouts now visit the NORAD Tracks Santa® website. Finally, media from all over the world rely on NORAD as a trusted source to provide updates on Santa's journey."

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In Memory of Retired Colonel Harry Shoup, NORAD's First Santa Tracker. September 29, 1917 - March 14, 2009.
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Here's what they say:
"While the tradition of tracking Santa began purely by accident, NORAD continues to track Santa. We’re the only organization that has the technology, the qualifications, and the people to do it. And, we love it! NORAD is honored to be Santa’s official tracker!"
(https://www.noradsanta.org/#section-village)

"Every December 24th, Santa Claus is tracked as he leaves the North Pole and delivers presents to children around the world. NORAD was renamed the North American Aerospace Defense Command and in 1981, openly published a hotline number for the general public to call to get updates on Santa Claus's progress, relying on volunteers to make the program possible. First Lady Michelle Obama has participated in the program each year since 2009, answering phone calls."
See
http://www.denverpost.com/2014/12/24/norad-calling-santa-trackers-receive-surprise-update-from-first-lady/

The NORAD Tracks Santa program has grown immensely since first presented on the Internet in 1997. The website, www.noradsanta.org, receives millions of unique visitors from hundreds of countries and territories around the world. In addition, a live Operations Center is occupied for 23 hours with more than 1,200 volunteers each year who receive hundreds of thousands of phone calls and emails from families around the world.

Be sure to visit
https://www.noradsanta.org/#section-village
and you'll discover how Rudolph's bright red nose gives off an infrared signature easily detectable by satellites with no problem.

NORAD uses special SantaCams once a year, on 24 December, tuning the cameras on about one hour before Santa enters a country then switching them off after they have captured images of him and the Reindeer (both video and still images). These images are immediately posted to the web site for people around the world to see. While Santa flies faster than any jet fighter, he slows down for fighter pilots to escort him; they get the thrill of flying with Santa and the famous Reindeer - Dasher, Dancer, Prancer, Vixen, Comet, Cupid, Donner, Blitzen and Rudolph.

https://www.noradsanta.org/#section-village
Does Santa visit everyone (i.e. Afghanistan, Israel, non-Christian countries)? Indeed! Santa visits all homes where children believe in him.

How can Santa travel the world within 24 hours? NORAD intelligence reports indicate that Santa does not experience time the way we do. His trip seems to take 24 hours to us, but to Santa it might last days, weeks or even months. Santa would not want to rush the important job of delivering presents to children and spreading joy to everyone, so the only logical conclusion is that Santa somehow functions within his own time-space continuum.

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Japanese woodblock print of Santa Claus.
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Is there a Santa Claus? Mountains of historical data and 60 years of NORAD tracking information leads us to believe that Santa Claus is alive and well in the hearts of people throughout the world. (https://www.noradsanta.org/#section-village)

How old is Santa? It’s hard to know for sure, but NORAD intelligence indicates Santa is AT LEAST 16 centuries old.

What does Santa look like? Based on flight profile data gathered from 60 years of NORAD's radar and satellite tracking, NORAD concludes that Santa probably stands about 5 feet 7 inches tall and weighs approximately 260 pounds (before cookies). Based on fighter-aircraft photos, we know he has a generous girth (belly), rosy cheeks from sleigh riding in cold weather, and a flowing white beard. (https://www.noradsanta.org/#section-village_

How does Santa get down chimneys? Although NORAD has different hypotheses and theories as to how Santa actually gets down the chimneys, we don’t have definitive information to explain the magical phenomenon.

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Santa entering a chimney on a rooftop.
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Do your planes ever intercept Santa? For 60 years, our fighter jets (F-16s, F-15s, F-22s and CF-18s) have intercepted Santa many, many times. When the jets intercept Santa, they tip their wings to say, "Hello Santa! – NORAD is tracking you again this year!" Santa always waves. He loves to see the pilots! For more information: https://www.noradsanta.org/#section-village

Does NORAD have any pictures of Santa taken from your planes? Our fighter pilots love to take photos of Santa. We also have NORAD Santa Cams in space which take video of Santa as he flies round the world. These videos appear almost every hour on December 24th at www.noradsanta.org.

Has Santa ever crashed into anything when he was flying around the world? Santa has been flying for centuries without hitting anything. He must be a great pilot!

Does NORAD have any statistics on Santa’s sleigh? NORAD can confirm that Santa’s sleigh is a versatile, all weather, multi-purpose, vertical short-take-off and landing vehicle. It is capable of traveling vast distances without refueling and is deployed, as far as we know, only on December 24th (and sometimes briefly for a test flight about a month before Christmas).

For NORAD's Technical Specs on Santa's Sleigh, including measurements in both CCs (Candy Canes) and LP (Lollipops), weight in GD (Gumdrops), and propulsion in RP (reindeer power), see https://www.noradsanta.org/#section-village
Climbing speed = One "T" (Twinkle of an eye)
Max speed = Faster than starlight

I would rather talk to someone at NORAD to find out where Santa is located. Is there a number I can call? Yes! The NORAD Tracks Santa® Operations Center is fully operational beginning at 3:00a.m. MST on December 24th. You can call 1 877 HI-NORAD (1 877 446-6723) to talk directly to a NORAD staff member who will be able to tell you Santa’s exact location.

Can I send an email to NORAD to find out where Santa is located? Yes! On December 24th, you can send an email to noradtrackssanta@outlook.com A NORAD staff member will give you Santa’s last known location in a return email. You can also track Santa on your mobile phone, through the official Windows 10 app, and you can even chat live with a NORAD operator to find out Santa’s location!

How much money is spent on this project? The NORAD Tracks Santa® program is made possible by volunteers and through the generous support of corporate licensees who bear virtually all of the costs. https://www.noradsanta.org/#section-village


 
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EPILOGUE

The physicist Rudolf Peierls (5 June 1907 – 19 September 1995) was a German-born British physicist active with the Manhattan Project and a consultant to the Atomic Energy Research Establishment at Harwell. Many scientists who had helped unleash nuclear weapons were subsequently much concerned with advocating their disuse. Peierls worked with Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, was President of the Atomic Scientists' Association in the UK, and was involved in the Pugwash movement to work toward reducing the danger of armed conflict, seeking solutions to global security threats.

In his 1985 autobiography, Bird of Passage (Princeton University Press), Peierls writes:

"Our father's generation took it for granted that changes would all be improvements, that progress must lead to a better quality of life. We have learnt to question this; we believe today that progress provides opportunities for improvement, but also opportunities for disaster and for new kinds of cruelty and suffering. The world will not become a better place unless we try hard to make it so. I hope I have not only added a few small bricks to the growing edifice of science, but also contributed a little to the fight against its misuse."

To this I add "Amen". I wish you all a Wonderful Holiday season, and end with this poem:

Oh where, oh where have the putti gone?
Oh where, oh where can they be?
With their wings cut short 
and their tails grown long,
They're stuck in the Christmas tree.

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FAIR USE NOTICE:
This site contains copyrighted material the use of which has not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. I am making such material available in my efforts to advance understanding of issues of environmental and humanitarian significance. I believe this constitutes a 'fair use' of any such copyrighted material as provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law. In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107, the material on this site is distributed without profit to those who have expressed a prior interest in receiving the included information for research and educational purposes. For more information go to: http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/17/107.shtml. If you wish to use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond 'fair use', you must obtain permission from the copyright owner.

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I sign our magazine articles "See Into The Invisible". Thanks for reading.
Best Wishes,
Debra Spencer

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171223 MAGAZINE Suit Yourself™ International Magazine #47 Putti Party Part 4. All Content is © Debra Spencer, Suit Yourself International. Technical Library FAQ Index ISSN
2474-820X. All Rights Reserved

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All Content is © Debra Spencer, Suit Yourself™ International. Technical Library FAQ Index ISSN 2474-820X. All Rights Reserved. Please do not reproduce in part or in whole without express written consent. Thank you.
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All Content is ©2019 Debra Spencer, Appanage™at www.suityourself.international Suit Yourself ™ International, 120 Pendleton Point, Islesboro Island, Maine, 04848, USA 44n31 68w91 Technical Library FAQ Index ISSN 2474-820X. All Rights Reserved. Please do not reproduce in part or in whole without express written consent. Thank you.

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All Content is ©2019 Debra Spencer, Appanage™at www.suityourself.international Suit Yourself ™ International, 120 Pendleton Point, Islesboro Island, Maine, 04848, USA 44n31 68w91 Technical Library FAQ Index ISSN 2474-820X. All Rights Reserved. Please do not reproduce in part or in whole without express written consent. Thank you.
Success consists of going from failure to failure without loss of enthusiasm. ~ Winston Churchill